# Inverse function does not get evaluated

I have a B-spline function, which is a function that is defined as a weighted sum of BSplineBasis function:

p = 2;
knotvector := {0, 0, 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1, 1};
n := Length[knotvector] - p - 1;
controlvector := {0, .2, .4, .6, .8, 1};
m[\[Xi]_] := Sum[controlvector[[k]] * BSplineBasis[{p, knotvector}, k - 1, \[Xi]], {k, 1, n}];


It happens to have an inverse (I know this by how the weights are chosen). So, I want to calculate the inverse function:

mi := InverseFunction[m];


This works for most of the functions domain (0, 1). However, near 0, the derivative of the function is small, and Mathematica refuses to evaluate the function:

mi[.15] (* = 0.104715 *)
mi[0.05] (* returns unevaluated expression *)


This can also be seen in a plot:

Plot[mi[x], {x, 0, 1}] It seems the inverse can be calculated on approximately the interval (0.1, 1]. How can I get the inverse on the whole interval [0, 1]?

I have been struggling with this and related problems for several hours. I tried wrapping the expression with Evaluate[...] and N[...], to no avail. I have also tried defining an inverse in terms of FindRoot, which works fine for plotting, but gives me a lot of troubles when taking derivatives or using the inverse in a composite function (but I should ask a separate question about this).

In case someone gets different results: I have Mathematica 10.3.1.0 for Raspberry Pi.

• What is p supposed to be? I'm guessing $2$ based on your choice of knot vector... – J. M. will be back soon Oct 15 '16 at 12:00
• Yes, good catch. I thought I had everything. I added it. – Ruben Oct 15 '16 at 12:12
• Can you try using mi = InverseFunction[Function[x, Evaluate[PiecewiseExpand[m[x], 0 < x < 1]]]]; ? – J. M. will be back soon Oct 15 '16 at 12:14

This is the solution by J.M.

p = 2;
knotvector := {0, 0, 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1, 1};
n := Length[knotvector] - p - 1;
controlvector := {0, .2, .4, .6, .8, 1};
m[ξ_] := Sum[controlvector[[k]]*BSplineBasis[{p, knotvector}, k - 1, ξ], {k, 1, n}];

mi = InverseFunction[Function[x, Evaluate[PiecewiseExpand[m[x], 0 < x < 1]]]]
Plot[{m[x], mi[x]}, {x, 0, 1}, PlotTheme -> "Detailed"] One can solve it also graphically.

plt = Plot[m[x], {x, 0, 1}];
p1 = Join @@ Cases[Normal@plt, Line[x1__] :> x1, Infinity];
a = Interpolation[Thread@{Last /@ p1, First /@ p1},InterpolationOrder -> 2];
Plot[{m[x], a[x]}, {x, 0, 1}, PlotTheme -> "Detailed"] • Since the OP is using a quadratic spline, setting InterpolationOrder -> 2 in your definition of a might be appropriate. – J. M. will be back soon Oct 15 '16 at 12:45
• @ J. M Ok! Thanks for that. – user36273 Oct 15 '16 at 13:00
• Works perfectly, thanks (also J.M.)! – Ruben Oct 15 '16 at 14:04