# Problem with Piecewise in a PDE Boundary Condition

I am attempting to set up a Neumann boundary condition for a PDE that evaluates differently for different times. I am using Piecewise to do this. Here is the Boundary condition:

$$U^{3/2}[x=L,t] = -\frac{c_2}{c_1}\frac{\partial U}{\partial x}[x=L,t]$$

In this problem, the initial condition is defined to be:

$$U[x,t=0] = z\:(a\:constant)$$

One can see that at t=0, there is an inconsistency at x = L. I have been seeking a work around for this, First by introducing the BC as piecewise defined, such that at t = 0, the derivative of the surface at the edge is 0, and at t > 0 it is as seen above. Here is the code I have been using for the definition of the boundary condition:

BC = -C2/C1 (D[u[x, t], x] /. x -> L) ==
Piecewise[{ {1, t = 0}, {((u[x, t])^(3/2) /. x -> L), t > 0 } } ]


This is the output: $$-1. u^{(1,0)}(1,t)=\left( \begin{array}{cc} \begin{array}{cc} u(1,t)^{3/2} & t>0 \\ 1 & t\leq 0 \\ 0 & True \\ \end{array} \\ \end{array} \right)$$

Beyond that I don't understand the third line "0 True", this is not working to generate a consitent boundary condition at x=L and t=0 for NDSolve. Am I using [Piecewise] incorrectly, or misapplying it here?

The fundamental boundary condition problem is this: D[u[x, t] is required to be zero at x == L, t = 0 but to be one at t infinitesimal larger. Instead, a smooth transitions is required, both on physical and mathematical grounds. For instance,

C1 = 1/10; C2 = 1/10; L = 1; tfinal34 = 4;
GovEqFD = C2 Sqrt[u[x, t]] D[u[x, t], {x, 2}] +
C2 (1/(2 Sqrt[ u[x, t]])) (D[u[x, t], x])^2 +
C1 (u[x, t] - 1) D[u[x, t], x] - D[u[x, t], t] == 0 ;
BC34 = {u[0, t] == 1, -C2/C1 (D[u[x, t], x] /. x -> L) == (1 - Exp[-10 t]) u[L, t]^(3/2)};
IC34 = u[x, 0] == 1;
FDsol4 = NDSolve[{GovEqFD, BC34, IC34}, u[x, t], {x, 0, L}, {t, 0, tfinal34}] // First;
Plot3D[u[x, t] /. FDsol4, {x, 0, L}, {t, 0, tfinal34}, PlotRange -> All] produces the desired solution.

It may be of interest to compute the steady state solution, obtained simply by deleting time dependence from the PDE.

s = NDSolve[{C2 Sqrt[v[x]] D[v[x], {x, 2}] + C2 (1/(2 Sqrt[ v[x]])) (D[v[x], x])^2 +
C1 (v[x] - 1) D[v[x], x] == 0, v == 1, -C2/C1 (D[v[x], x] /. x -> L)== v[L]^(3/2)},
v[x], {x, 0, L}, Method -> {"Shooting",
"StartingInitialConditions" -> {v == 1, v' == -1/4}}] // First;
Plot[{Evaluate[u[x, t] /. FDsol4 /. t -> {1, 2, 4}], v[x] /. s}, {x, 0, L},
AxesLabel -> {x, "u, v"}] The red curve is the steady state solution. The time-dependent solution converges to it at about t == 10.