# How do I make Conjugate behave more consistently?

Sometimes Conjugate distributes. Sometimes it doesn't. Look:

Conjugate[a b]
(* Conjugate[a b] *)

Conjugate[2 a b]
(* 2 Conjugate[a b] *)   (*'2' pulled out*)

Conjugate[a (b + c)]
(* Conjugate[a (b + c)] *)

Conjugate[a (b + 2 c)]
(* Conjugate[a] (Conjugate[b] + 2 Conjugate[c]) *)  (* Distributed! *)

Conjugate[a (b + c (d + e))]
(* Conjugate[a (b + c (d + e))] *)

1. Why is Conjugate behaving like this (that is, inconsistently)?

2. Is there a switch I can toggle that prevents Conjugate from doing stuff willy nilly? I don't mind if Conjugate[2 a b] stays Conjugate[2 a b]. It's more consistent that way.

list = {a b, 2 a b, a (b + c), a (b + 2 c), a (b + c (d + e))};


If you never want Conjugate to distribute, use Inactive

Inactive[Conjugate] /@ list If you want Conjugate to always distribute

conj[expr_] :=
ComplexExpand[expr, Variables@Level[expr, {-1}],
TargetFunctions -> Conjugate] // Simplify

conj@*Conjugate /@ list

(*  {Conjugate[a] Conjugate[b], 2 Conjugate[a] Conjugate[b],
Conjugate[a] (Conjugate[b] + Conjugate[c]),
Conjugate[a] (Conjugate[b] + 2 Conjugate[c]),
Conjugate[a] (Conjugate[b] + Conjugate[c] (Conjugate[d] + Conjugate[e]))}  *)


If any variables are Reals, say a and c, then use Simplify

Simplify[%, Element[{a, c}, Reals]]

(*  {a Conjugate[b], 2 a Conjugate[b], a (c + Conjugate[b]),
a (2 c + Conjugate[b]), a (Conjugate[b] + c (Conjugate[d] + Conjugate[e]))}  *)


Mathematica does not know the nature of your symbols. It knows for sure that 2 is a real number - so it can use proper distribution. You can always specify your variables to get a more consistent answer. For example,

Simplify[Conjugate[a (b + c)], Assumptions -> {a, b, c} ∈ Reals]


a (b + c)

Simplify[Conjugate[a (b + c)], Assumptions -> {{a, b} ∈ Reals}]


a (b + Conjugate[c])

Simplify[Conjugate[a (b + c)], Assumptions -> {{a} ∈ Reals}]


a Conjugate[b + c]

Or you can use Expand as well to see all the terms distinctly

Expand[Simplify[Conjugate[a (b + c)], Assumptions -> {a, b, c} ∈ Reals]]


a b + a c

And last but not the least, the most general case

Simplify[Conjugate[a (b + c)], Assumptions -> {a, b, c} ∈ Complexes]


Conjugate[a (b + c)]

• This is fine, do you know how to keep the whole expression together inside Conjugate? I don't like it behaves in my fourth example. Notice also Conjugate[a (b + c (d + 2 e))] doesn't expand, despite there being a 2 inside. – QuantumDot Aug 15 '16 at 17:34
• You can define your variables as Complexes (I put it at the end of my answer). In Conjugate[a (b + c (d + 2 e))], 2e is again multiplied by c and then a which puzzles MMA :) – Sumit Aug 15 '16 at 18:03