# Can I get rid of the noise in my differential equation solution?

I am solving a differential equation:

c = 0.01333;
Ang[x_] := -I Log[-Exp[I x]]/2;
y[x_, t_] = DSolveValue[
{u''[t] + (4 (c t - Cos[x])^2 + 4 Sin[x]^2 + I 2 c) u[t] == 0,
u' == I 2 Cos[x] Cos[Ang[x]] - I 2 Sin[x] Sin[Ang[x]],
u == Cos[Ang[x]]},
u[t], t];


My issue is that the plots of Re[y[x,t]] for a specific t and -Pi<=x<=Pi show significant noise. Is there any way to get rid of it, or solve the equation in a different way so that this does not occur?

An example plot showing Re[y[x,100]]: The solution is an even function with maximal and minimal values of +1 and -1, whereas the plot clearly shows "random" spikes.

• Can you please post an example plot? It's possible that we'd be able to clear up the problem without even having to run the code. – march Jan 21 '16 at 17:28
• @march, thanks for the suggestion. I have edited the question to include a plot. – blogoliubov Jan 21 '16 at 17:35
• I tried to plot those function, and Plot was still running after 5 minutes, so for now, all I can say is: try Plot[Re[Chop[y[x, 100]]], {x, -Pi, Pi} ]. – march Jan 21 '16 at 17:36
• Also, have you tried plotting on smaller ranges? Say, 1 to 1.5: see what this does. Your function might be highly oscillatory, and so the resolution (number of PlotPoints) might need to be increased. – march Jan 21 '16 at 17:38
• I have the feeling you have precision issues. Look at the difference when you evaluate y[1., 100] vs. y[1, 100]. You might consider trying to massage the expression into a simpler form. Otherwise, for now, I'm out of ideas. – march Jan 21 '16 at 17:48

As march predicted in a comment above, the noise in the plots is a precision issue. A small improvement can be obtained by setting c to a rational number,

c = 4/300


and applying FullSimplify to y[x, t]. before plotting. Nonetheless, even at t = 0, the solution is quite noisy. To illustrate, compare the initial condition on u with y[x, 0].

p0 = Plot[Cos[Ang[x]], {x, -Pi, Pi}];
pN0 = ListPlot[Table[Re[y[x, 0] // N], {x, -Pi, Pi, Pi/50}], DataRange -> {-Pi, Pi}];
Show[p0, pN0] Note that ListPlot is used instead of Plot to produce results in a reasonable time. Plot is painfully slow due both to the noise and to how slowly ParabolicCylinderD evaluates with complex arguments. (The solution produced by DSolve contains several parabolic cylinder functions.) Even ListPlot{Table[...]] takes 17 seconds on my PC.

An obvious course of action is to use higher precision, say 30. To do so, use

\$MaxExtraPrecision = 200;
pN0 = ListPlot[Table[Re[N[y[x, 0], 30]], {x, -Pi, Pi, Pi/50}]


Indeed, this eliminates the noise, although the computation now takes 40 seconds.

High precision can, of course, be used with Plot, for instance,

Plot[Re[N[y[x, 0], 30]], {x, -Pi, Pi}, WorkingPrecision -> 30]


but remains painfully slow and, moreover, omits a portion of the plot. On the other hand,

DiscretePlot[Re[y[x, 0]], {x, -Pi, Pi, Pi/200}, WorkingPrecision -> 30]


produces a good result, although very slowly.

Instead, smooth curves can be obtained reasonably quickly by solving the original equation numerically.

s = ParametricNDSolveValue[{u''[t] + (4 (c t - Cos[x])^2 + 4 Sin[x]^2 + I 2 c) u[t] == 0,
u' == I 2 Cos[x] Cos[Ang[x]] - I 2 Sin[x] Sin[Ang[x]], u == Cos[Ang[x]]},
u, {t, 0, 100}, {x}]


Then,

Plot[Re[s[x]], {x, -Pi, Pi}] Plot[Re[s[x]], {x, -Pi, Pi}] Based on the analysis in my answer to a related question, y[x, 100] can be plotted with

Plot[Re[N[y[Rationalize[x, 0], 20], 30]], {x, -Pi, Pi},
PlotPoints -> 401, MaxRecursion -> 0]


to produce the second curve above in about seven minutes (on my PC). Thus, NDSolve remains the function of choice to obtain plots of y quickly.

Incidentally, The Wronskian of the t-dependent parabolic cylinder functions appearing in y is given by

(1/5 - I/5) Sqrt[2/3] E^(-(75/2) π Sin[x]^2)


Because the Wronskian appears as part of y, it is not surprising that very high precision is necessary to obtain accurate values of y except for Sin[x] near zero.

c = 0.01333 // Rationalize;

Ang[x_] = -I Log[-Exp[I x]]/2;

y[x_, t_] =
FullSimplify[
DSolveValue[{
u''[t] + (4 (c t - Cos[x])^2 + 4 Sin[x]^2 + I 2 c) u[t] == 0,
u' == I 2 Cos[x] Cos[Ang[x]] - I 2 Sin[x] Sin[Ang[x]],
u == Cos[Ang[x]]}, u[t], t],
{Element[t, Reals], -Pi <= x <= Pi}];


The above definition is in terms of the parabolic cylinder function, ParabolicCylinderD. FunctionExpand can be used to convert to the Hermite polynomial, HermiteH

y[x_, t_] = y[x, t] //
FunctionExpand //
Simplify[#,
{Element[t, Reals], -Pi <= x <= Pi}] &;


Use the option WorkingPrecision in Plot to reduce noise in the plot.

Plot[Re[y[x, 100]], {x, -Pi, Pi},
WorkingPrecision -> 30] • This otherwise creative approach omits a portion of the curve, as can be seen from evaluating N[y[Pi/2, 100], 30]. I encountered the same problem with Plot[Re[N[y[x, 0], 30]], {x, -Pi, Pi}, WorkingPrecision -> 30]. Strange. – bbgodfrey Jan 22 '16 at 1:48