I have the following function:

enter image description here

I need to plot a 3-D with coordinates f (p, q), p and q. I mean, I enter values for p and q, so that the integral of f (p, q) must be a number. This number must be placed in a coordinate axis and their respective points p and q must be palced in the other two coordinates axes to generate a point (in the 3-D space). Variables p and q range from minus infinity to plus infinity.

I've tried to solve the problem this way: enter image description here

However, I didn't succeed. Mathematica does not accept the limit 1-z of the integral. Also, it does accept the varying values of p and q. What can I do to solve this problem?

Thank you in advance.

Thanks a lot, you helped me so much. But I have another question. When I tried to plot the imaginary part too, I didn't succeed, why? Notice that when I plot with the variation of p and q which range from -Sqrt2 up to Sqrt2, the graphic is ploted:

F[p_, q_] := NIntegrate[1/(q^2 y (1 - y) + p^2 z (1 - z) - 1), {z, 0, 1}, {y, 0, 1 - z}]
    Im[F[p, q]], {p, -Sqrt[2], Sqrt[2]}, {q, -Sqrt[2], Sqrt[2]}, AxesLabel -> {p, q, F}], 
    Plot3D[Re[F[p, q]], {p, -Sqrt[2], Sqrt[2]}, {q, -Sqrt[2], Sqrt[2]},
     AxesLabel -> {p, q, F}]}}]

But how can I increase the range of p and q?

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    Nov 20, 2015 at 22:46
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1 Answer 1


To avoid the error encounterd in the Question, combine the two NIntegrate into one. Note also that the integrand is singular for p^2 + q^2 >= 2.

F[p_, q_] := NIntegrate[1/(q^2 y (1 - y) + p^2 z (1 - z) - 1), {z, 0, 1}, {y, 0, 1 - z}]
Plot3D[F[p, q], {p, -Sqrt[2], Sqrt[2]}, {q, -Sqrt[2], Sqrt[2]}, AxesLabel -> {p, q, F}]

enter image description here

Note that the order of the integrations matters even for the combined NIntegrate. Putting the limits on y at the end of NIntegrate causes the integral over y to be performed first.


Alternatively, the inner integral in the Question can be performed symbolically, and the outer integral performed numerically.

inner = Integrate[1/(q^2 y (1 - y) + p^2 z (1 - z) - 1), {y, 0, 1 - z}, 
    Assumptions -> 0 < z < 1 && p^2 + q^2 < 4 && (p | q) ∈ Reals]
(* (2 (ArcTan[q/Sqrt[4 - q^2 + 4 p^2 (-1 + z) z]] - 
       ArcTan[(q (-1 + 2 z))/Sqrt[4 - q^2 + 4 p^2 (-1 + z) z]]))/
   (q Sqrt[4 - q^2 + 4 p^2 (-1 + z) z]) *)
F[p0_, q0_] := NIntegrate[inner /. {p -> p0, q -> q0}, {z, 0, 1}]

yielding the same result when plotted.

Second Addendum

In response to the additional query added to the Question, it is difficult to obtain plots for p^2 + q^2 > 4 due to singularities in the integrand. However, the singularities in inner appear to be first order, so numerically integrating across them may give reasonably accurate answers, at least for large p^2 + q^2, where the singularities are near z = 0 and z = 1. Using the definition of F from the first Addendum then gives for the real and imaginary parts of F.

Plot3D[Re[F[p, q]], {p, -5, 5}, {q, -5, 5}, AxesLabel -> {p, q, F}, 
    PlotRange -> {-1.2, .8}]

enter image description here

Plot3D[Im[F[p, q]], {p, -5, 5}, {q, -5, 5}, AxesLabel -> {p, q, F}]

enter image description here

Numerical problems for p^2 + q^2 just larger than 4 are evident.


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