Questions about performing probabilistic calculations, especially those concerned with the Mathematica commands Probability, Expectation and the various functions related to distributions such as NormalDistribution, CDF, PDF etc.

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25
votes
6answers
2k views

Efficient way to generate random points with a predefined lower bound on their pairwise Euclidean distance

Using Mathematica what is an efficient way to generate a list of $n$ random two dimensional points $\{x_i,y_i\}$ where $i=1,...,n$ so that no two points $p_1$ and $p_2$ in the list has an Euclidean ...
23
votes
1answer
1k views

RandomVariate from 2-dimensional probability distribution

A probability distribution can be created in Mathematica (I am using 8.0.1) with e.g. ...
16
votes
2answers
645 views

How to compute the inverse CDF properly?

Note: this has been fixed in version 9. I want to compute the CDF and inverse CDF of the hyperbolic distribution: ...
15
votes
3answers
883 views

What is the average of rolling two dice and only taking the value of the higher dice roll?

I am referencing to this question on mathunderflow: What is the average of rolling two dice and only taking the value of the higher dice roll? Now I tried: ...
13
votes
1answer
330 views

RandomVariate returns values outside the support of a PDF

Let $X$ be a random variable with pdf: dist = ProbabilityDistribution[1/(Abs[x]*Log[Abs[x]]^2), {x, -E^-2, E^-2}] Here are some pseudo-random drawings from it: ...
13
votes
2answers
870 views

Obtaining joint distributions and conditional distributions using Mathematica

I have two multivariate Gaussian distributions $p(x)$ and $p(z)$ with mean vectors $m_x$ and $m_z$, and covariance matrices $\Sigma_x$ and $\Sigma_z$. my model is a simple linear model $x = W z+n$ ...
12
votes
3answers
424 views

Simulate a simple spinner

I'm teaching some simple ideas in probability to students in grade 7. The "spinner" below works, but I'm wondering how I could make it just a bit more realistic by having it actually "spin" around a ...
12
votes
1answer
165 views

NExpectation behaves oddly with EmpiricalDistribution

Note: this is fixed in version 9. My question concerns the usage of NExpectation and Expectation and why I see the behavior I ...
12
votes
1answer
174 views

Randomness test suites that can be invoked from Mathematica

There are several test suites referenced at csrc.nist.gov designed to test a (pseudo-)random byte sequence for randomness, and discover possible skews, correlations, patterns, or other hidden ...
10
votes
6answers
1k views

2D Gaussian distribution of squares coordinates

I would like to imitate the structure of this great painting from Ellsworth Kelly in Mathematica. Yet with all the colored squares in Black and the beige one in white. Below is what I have wrote to ...
10
votes
4answers
461 views

How do I solve this probability problem with Probability´╝č

Consider a stick of length 1. Pick two points uniformly at random on the stick, and break the stick at those points. What is the probability that the three segments obtained in this way form a ...
10
votes
4answers
376 views

Extracting equations from Piecewise expressions

Say I have a PDF: PDF[LogNormalDistribution[1.75, 0.65], x] Calculating it, Mathematica gives me an expression that looks like this: I want to extract the ...
10
votes
2answers
2k views

How to calculate the mode of a probability distribution

I was wondering if there is any command to get the mode of the probability distributions. Calculating manually, the mode is (alpha-1)/(alpha+beta-2) While the mean, median or variance of the beta ...
9
votes
3answers
2k views

How to generate a RandomVariate of a custom distribution?

I'm trying to generate a pseudorandom variate out of a custom distribution. Suppose I want define a custom distribution, and for the sake of simplicity I define a Poisson distribution (the ...
8
votes
3answers
511 views

Probability problem — Rube Goldberg solution?

A user posted this question on StackOverflow which was closed as off topic: 3 people are playing a game with a standard 52 card deck. Each player is given 2 cards each, possible cards and their ...
8
votes
2answers
455 views

Expected Value: Strange/unexpected result

Assume $X$ is an exponential random variable with unit mean ($f_X(x)=e^{-x}$, $x>0$). I want to calculate the expected value of $\frac{1}{X}$. Since $X>0$, I am expecting that ...
8
votes
1answer
361 views

Random variables with transformed discrete distributions cannot be applied to Probability[] function?

I have two discrete uniform distributions over same support: Dx = DiscreteUniformDistribution[{-8, 8}]; Dy = DiscreteUniformDistribution[{-8, 8}]; I use ...
8
votes
1answer
510 views

Recommended book on random processes to understand new functionality in Mathematica 9?

I am interested in exploring the new functionality on random processes available in Mathematica 9, but I am not familiar with all of the underlying mathematics. Could you recommend a book that ...
8
votes
1answer
598 views

Mathematica code for hidden Markov models (HMM)

I am looking for some simple Mathematica code to model an HMM with just a few states and an equal number of observable signals (emissions). I am hoping to generate sample paths and keep track of the ...
7
votes
1answer
669 views

Probability and distribution from actual data

Let's say I have some data from a real world system: ...
7
votes
1answer
100 views

How to create a spliced survival statistical distribution?

I am trying to use Mathematica for more of my reliability engineering work and am having trouble using SplicedDistribution. I have a Weibull distribution (dist1) associated with a low stress ...
7
votes
1answer
525 views

How do I calculate the probability of reaching mean residual life

I need to understand the Survival Analysis concept of "mean residual life (MRL)" and calculating probabilities for reaching it. From another discussion: The MRL at time t is the mean additional ...
6
votes
2answers
2k views

Function to compute the probability of exactly one event occurring out of N independent events

Is there a built in function (or a function in one of the standard packages) that allows you to compute the probability of exactly one event occurring out of some known set of probabilities for N ...
6
votes
3answers
351 views

Calculate probability function

I would like to calculate the following with Mathematica: Let $X$ be a random variable with probability function $$p(x)= \left\{ \begin{matrix} \frac{x}{6} & \text{for }x \in \{1,2,3\}\\ 0 ...
6
votes
1answer
128 views

RandomVariate does not fill range of PDF of distribution

I've declared my own probability distribution as follows dist[a_, b_] := ProbabilityDistribution[Cos[(b x)/2]^2 Sinc[a x]^2, {x, -400, 400}]; When I try to ...
6
votes
1answer
705 views

Mathematica Package for Bayesian Networks

Are there any packages that allow the simulation of Bayesian Networks with Mathematica? I found what seemed to be a promising package (Dynamics) on a Brown University URL, ...
5
votes
4answers
308 views

Probability: proportion of 1000 random lists for x that contain the same nrs

Give a function which calculates for each x a random list of birthdays (which can be x=1 to x=365) birthdays[x_] := RandomInteger[{1, 365}, x] is my answer. ...
5
votes
1answer
299 views
5
votes
0answers
181 views

Speeding up multilinear PRA branch-and-bound algorithm with worst-case exponential time scenario with respect to basic events

The algorithm is a branch-and-bound algorithm that calculates dominances for PRA, probalistic risk assessment. The task was to find faster ways to do it in numerical software such as Matlab but we ...
4
votes
2answers
196 views

How to find the variance under the assumption that x follows some probability distribution

I am aware that we can find the expectation under the assumption that x follows some probability distribution, something like this: ...
4
votes
3answers
505 views

Graphical Plots of PDF and CDF

I have a joint density and distribution function that I want to plot in a meaningful way, (i.e., want to be able to see how the functions behaves as changes in x and y happen simultaneously. If ...
4
votes
1answer
191 views

Reproducing a graphic on Jensen's inequality for the probabilistic case

I am trying to reproduce the following graph on Jensen's inequality for the probabilistic case (source: wikipedia) but with the exponential function as Y, the normal distribution on the X-axis and ...
4
votes
3answers
288 views

Plotting the convolution of the same probability density function with itself

I would like to compute the integral $$q_n(x)=\int_{B}^A q_{n-1} (\omega)f(x-\omega)\mathrm{d} \omega,\quad q_1=f,\quad n\geq 1.$$ for a given density function $f$. Basically it is the convolution ...
4
votes
1answer
140 views

Combinations which do not have elements in common

I can choose 2 letters from the four letters $\{A,B,C,D\}$ in 6 combinations using the combination formula $$\frac{n!}{ r! (n-r)!}$$ ...
4
votes
4answers
122 views

How do I emulate DiscreteUniformDistribution in Mathematica?

How do I define a function from scratch that emulates DiscreteUniformDistribution? As shown below, attempting to use ...
4
votes
2answers
110 views

Finding the characteristic function of a TransformedDistribution[]

I am trying to find the characteristic function of a sum of "named" distributions, though I am interested in how to use Mathematica to find the characteristic function of $$f(X_1,\ldots, X_n),$$ where ...
4
votes
1answer
67 views

Define customised distribution with discontinuous CDF

I have the following CDF: ...
3
votes
4answers
201 views

Descriptive statistics of two events

I am trying to use the descriptive statistics feature of Mathematica to answer the following question: suppose I have two events, A and B, whose occurrence is described by a normal distribution around ...
3
votes
4answers
96 views

Check whether a function of two variables is a probabilty distribution function

I have a function like this $f(x,y)=c\,y\,(y-x),\ \text{for}\ 0<x<2,\;-x<y<x$ and I need to find the value of $c$ such that $f(x,y)$ is a PDF. How can I do that? I know that the ...
3
votes
1answer
165 views

Put random points into a specific 2D subregion

I want to cover a particular subregion of the x-y plane with a random distribution. As this particular region is not a circle I encounter some problems declaring the permitted zone where to put ...
3
votes
1answer
116 views

Categorical Distribution

Suppose I want to do calculations with a random variable $X$ that has a simple categorical distribution (a.k.a generalised Bernoulli distribution or discrete distribution). I was expecting to be able ...
3
votes
2answers
623 views

Empirical Cumulative Distribution Function

I have a data set of the form $d=\{(y_1,x_1),(y_2,x_2)...(y_n,x_n)\}$ for a large $n$. A non-parametric plot of this data (a scatter plot where all observations are sorted along $x$ and joined with a ...
3
votes
1answer
152 views

Expectation of CauchyDistribution

I've noticed this strange behavior and I'm wondering if it's a bug. I define a Cauchy distribution: c = CauchyDistribution[0, 1]; If I evaluate ...
3
votes
1answer
67 views

Where do Mathematica's probability functions draw a line in the sand for predicates?

Thinking about a recent question mis-posted here (belonged on math), I noted the following. A contrived example - probability that a or b are 1: ...
3
votes
0answers
89 views

What can I do to improve the performance of my calculations?

I'm trying to express a simple probability problem in Mathematica, but am having trouble getting my calculations to execute at a reasonable speed. I have an object whose unknown location is modeled ...
3
votes
0answers
140 views

Markov Chain for combined events?

I was wondering how to apply Markov steady-state chains to a simple case in genetics, eye colour. Assuming the probabilities of being brown, green or blue eyed, given your parents were a certain ...
3
votes
0answers
90 views

shortest paths in probabilistically weighted edges? [duplicate]

I understand Mathematica can find shortest paths. However, is it also able to find the most probable paths? I mean this is a case where edges are given probabilistic wights (from 0 to 1) and the most ...
3
votes
0answers
98 views

ProbabilityDistribution PDF on boundary points

I would like to evaluate the PDF of a custom ProbabilityDistribution at the min and max values. However, PDF[...] returns 0 at ...
2
votes
3answers
230 views

Covariance of transformed random variables

I am trying to solve the following: $\begin{align*} &X \sim N(1,1)\\ &\mathrm{cov}(X, X^3) = \text{?} \end{align*}$ where $\mathrm{cov}$ is the covariance. How would you do this in ...
2
votes
3answers
311 views

Generate random points in a region with higher probability in a sub-region

I am trying to generate random samples of points in the unit square in such a way that points inside a given circle are twice as likely to be selected as points outside that circle. I tried to ...