Questions on the number-theoretic functionality of Mathematica.

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35
votes
2answers
3k views

What is so special about Prime?

When we try to evaluate Prime on big numbers (e.g. 10^13) we encounter the following issue : ...
34
votes
5answers
2k views

Factorisation diagrams

Here is a way to visualize the factorisation of natural numbers. How do we get this or a similar kind of output using Mathematica? See the list of images generated for number from 1 to 36:
23
votes
1answer
3k views

Finding long strings of identical digits in transcendental numbers

Introduction Describing the three main streams of present-day mathematical philosophy (formalism, Platonism and intuitionism) in a well-known book, The Emperor's New Mind, R. Penrose says: ...it ...
21
votes
6answers
1k views

efficient way to count the number of zeros at the (right) end of a very large number

If I want to count the number of zeros at the (right) end of a large number, like $12345!$, I can use something like: Length[Last[Split[IntegerDigits[12345!]]]] ...
18
votes
4answers
685 views

Why does Mathematica claim there is no even prime?

I wonder if this is a bug, or if I'm misunderstanding something: Exists[n, EvenQ[n] && PrimeQ[n]] // Resolve (* ==> False *) So if I interpret this ...
14
votes
2answers
413 views

Why does iterating Prime in reverse order require much more time?

Say I would like to display the $10$ greatest primes that are less than $10^5$. I could do the following: ...
13
votes
3answers
513 views

How to know if a number is the square of a rational?

I'm pretty new with Mathematica and I was looking for a way to know whether a number is a square of a rational. I thought of Head[Sqrt[myNumber]] == Rational ...
12
votes
1answer
210 views

the more effective method to find 21 digits armstrong number

In recreational number theory, a narcissistic number (also known as a pluperfect digital invariant (PPDI), an Armstrong number(after Michael F. Armstrong) or a plus perfect number) is a number that is ...
11
votes
6answers
1k views

How to find lattice points on a line segment?

How do I find points on the line segment joining {-4, 11} and {16, -1} whose coordinates are positive integers?
10
votes
4answers
2k views

Semi prime numbers

The high school textbook I am using has the example of semi-prime numbers. They wanted students to find (by "perspiration") all the semi-prime numbers less than $50$ (for a question on set theory). ...
10
votes
5answers
490 views

Double series over primes

I'm very curious if the following double series over primes has a closed form: $$\sum_{k \in \mathcal{P}}\sum_{n \in \mathcal{P}}\frac{1}{k\;n(k+n)^2}$$ where $\mathcal{P}$ denotes the set of all ...
10
votes
5answers
1k views

Fastest square number test

What is the fastest possible square number test in Mathematica 7, both for machine size and big integers? I presume in version 8 the fastest will be a dedicated C LibraryLink function.
10
votes
2answers
443 views

FiniteFields package is very slow. Any fast substitute for Mathematica?

I want to compute the inverse of matrix, say with dimensions $100 \times 100$, defined over a large finite field extension such as $GF(2^{120})$. I am using the package FiniteFields, but Mathematica's ...
8
votes
0answers
462 views

Does Mathematica use the Elliptic Curve Method (ECM) in FactorInteger[]?

I'm not a mathematician, and I'm not even going to pretend that I understand anything of the ECM. But I know it can be a fast method for factorization. I benchmarked the factorization of ...
7
votes
4answers
276 views

Generate PrimePower counting function

Is there a way to generate a counting function for prime powers - i.e. to create a similar function to PrimePi, but including prime powers. The following will, of ...
7
votes
2answers
332 views

Next highly composite number?

R language has this function 'nextn' (link) which computes the next highly composite number greater than a given one, which is used to find the optimal padding size for the subsequent FFT operation. ...
7
votes
1answer
311 views

What is the confidence limit on this convergence?

When I run this, Product[n^MoebiusMu[n],{n,1,Infinity}] I get $\frac{1}{4 \pi^{2}}$ Over on Math Overflow they are saying it shouldn't happen. So, how do ...
7
votes
1answer
192 views

Testing for primality in quadratic rings?

Testing for primality in $\mathbb{Z}[\sqrt{-1}]$ in Mathematica is easy: PrimeQ[n, GaussianIntegers -> True] But how can I test for primality in, say, ...
6
votes
5answers
703 views

Write any positive integer as a sum of squares

With n = 17 I would like to get {4, 1} and with n = 999 {31, 6, 1, 1} so that, for example, ...
6
votes
1answer
445 views

Evaluate continued fraction

Mathematica has the ContinuedFraction[] function to give the continued fraction expansion of a rational (or approximation of a real) number. I'm interested in the ...
6
votes
1answer
126 views

Implementing Remainder Tree

I want to implement Remainder Tree based on this. With the answers on SE I've come up with: ...
5
votes
3answers
480 views

Implementing the Farey sequence efficiently

There is of course the silly implementation: FareySequence[n_] := Union[Flatten[Table[j/i, {i, 1, n}, {j, 0, i}]]] However, there are numerous properties and ...
5
votes
3answers
196 views

How could I implement the equivalent of NextPrime

I would like to know what an implementation of the function NextPrime would look like if it were implemented in Mathematica's core language.
5
votes
1answer
133 views

How can I program the RiemannR function using the LogIntegral command?

I would like to program the RiemannR function using the LogIntegral command because I would like to later experiment with a ...
5
votes
0answers
100 views

Doing computations in a modulo ring

I need to perform some computations in a modulo ring, like Mod[Subfactorial[n], m] Mod[Binomial[n, k], m] However, this is obviously much too slow for large ...
4
votes
4answers
242 views

Conveying density of 5-smooth (Hamming) numbers

A number is 5-smooth if its only prime factors are 2, 3 or 5. Example: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 12, 15, … Interesting thing is that as they become larger ...
4
votes
1answer
213 views

Implementation of the Polynomial Chinese Remainder Theorem

I would like an implementation of the Chinese Remainder Theorem for polynomials in $\mathbb{Z}[x]$, that is, a function ...
4
votes
1answer
319 views

Which DirichletCharacter is KroneckerSymbol?

If $d$ is a fundamental discriminant, KroneckerSymbol[d,n] is a Dirichlet character modulo $|d|$. Which one is it? If $d>0$ is a prime $\equiv 1\bmod 4$, then ...
4
votes
0answers
82 views

Simplifying expressions involving Divisible

FullSimplify[ Divisible[p^2 - 1, 24] , Element[p, Primes] && p > 3] Should evaluate to True, but I get ...
3
votes
4answers
330 views

Perfect numbers

The question given to me: a. Find the perfect numbers between $1$ and $10^6$ b: Find the abundant numbers between $1$ and $1000$ For a, I wrote ...
3
votes
5answers
200 views

Triangular numbers boolean function

I read the new book by Paul Wellin Programming in Mathematica. There is an exercise about triangular numbers. (The n-th triangular number is defined as the sum of ...
3
votes
1answer
220 views

Von Mangoldt function

Can anybody evaluate the following sum for me $$ \sum\limits_{n=2}^\infty(-1)^n\left(\frac{\psi(n)}{n}-\frac{\Lambda(n)}{2n}\right) $$ where $\psi(n)$ is the Chebyshev function and $\Lambda(n)$ is ...
3
votes
3answers
177 views

What is the formula for this numerical series?

I'm developing a questions game. My goal is that the score for each correct answer will increase as the user answers more questions. Initially there are 15 points for each correct answer. Every 4 ...
3
votes
1answer
132 views

Negative Continued Fraction of a Rational

The $n^{\text{th}}$ negative continued fraction convergent $x_n$ of a positive real $x$ is computed by the nested function \begin{align} x_n = k_1 - \frac{1}{k_2 - \frac{1}{k_3 - \dots - ...
3
votes
1answer
273 views

How does Mathematica calculate the nth prime?

When I enter Prime[2000000000000], the two-trillionth prime, Mathematica gives 61427839512211 for the answer after several ...
3
votes
1answer
460 views

Function to Determine Lucky Numbers

Given a list of the form {1, 3, 5, 7, ...}, the lucky numbers are obtained by looking at the first list element after 1 (so 3 in this case), and deleting all list ...
3
votes
1answer
170 views

Generating a list of all factorizations

What is the best way to generate a list of all factorizations of some number $n$? I'm quite new to Mathematica so this might be obvious. I have been trying some basic stuff with ...
3
votes
1answer
82 views

How to calculate the residue of $1/f(z)$ at a numerical approximation to a root of $f(z)$?

The input Residue[1/DirichletL[19,10,s],{s,s0}] gives 0 even when s0 is a root. For ...
3
votes
1answer
170 views

Finding the largest integer that cannot be partitioned in a certain way

I want to use Mathematica to solve the problem: Find the maximum $k$ such that $6x+9y+20z=k$ does not have a non-negative solution. I tried FrobeniusSolve. ...
3
votes
0answers
248 views

Parallel PowerMod

Is there anyway to parallelize the PowerMod function? Here is my Left-To-Right modular exponentation: ...
2
votes
3answers
187 views

Why do these two different zetas produce the same value?

Zeta[-13] == Zeta[-1] == -1/12 Why do these two different zetas produce the same value?
2
votes
3answers
410 views

Generating pairs of additive and multiplicative factors for integers

Given an integer $n$, I want to get two lists: a) the set of pairs of the divsors $a,b$ into exactly two factors $n=a\cdot b$, b) the set of pairs $a,b$ of two summands $n=a+b$. The code I ...
2
votes
2answers
301 views

Plotting Chebyshev's theta function $\vartheta(x)$

The function I would like to plot is defined as $\sum\limits_{p\leq x}\log p.$ The following gives me I think a plot of the points of interest, but the function is defined for all $x > 0$ and so ...
2
votes
1answer
175 views

Expressing large numbers in index form

I have a quick question. Is there anyway of expressing a large number as a power of another number in Mathematica? By this, I mean for example, $1237940039285380274899124224 = 512^{10}$. Is there a ...
2
votes
2answers
134 views

Checking if a number is a perfect power

I wanted to know how would I use Mathematica in order to check if the number is a perfect power I saw the algorithm but couldn't grasp it enough to implement it, so can anybody help?
2
votes
2answers
126 views

FactorInteger over UFDs

How can I factor 'integers' over other quadratic number fields (not just gaussian integers). For instance, how could I factor $7 = (3 + ω)(2 − ω)$ over Eisenstein integers ($ω = \frac{-1+ I ...
2
votes
0answers
119 views

PowersRepresentations Algorithm

I'm trying to understand the mathematics behind counting the number of representations of a positive integer by $n$ distinct $k$th powers, i.e. I would really like to know how to do the Mathematica ...
1
vote
5answers
712 views

A question regarding 1 divided 243

Here is a problem due to Feynman. If you take 1 divided by 243 you get 0.004115226337 .... It goes a little cockeyed after 559 when you're carrying out the decimal expansion, but it soon straightens ...
1
vote
5answers
218 views

Write a number as the product of its two largest divisors

For even n >= 10 && n <= 98 I want to write n as the product of its two largest divisors (excluding ...
1
vote
3answers
191 views

Generating a list of cubefree numbers

I am trying to generate a list of cubefree numbers (i.e. numbers when prime factorized contain no tripled factors) within a given range. Of DivisorSigma, ...