# Tagged Questions

Questions on the number-theoretic functionality of Mathematica.

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### What is so special about Prime?

When we try to evaluate Prime on big numbers (e.g. 10^13) we encounter the following issue: ...
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### Factorisation diagrams

Here is a way to visualize the factorisation of natural numbers. How do we get this or a similar kind of output using Mathematica? See the list of images generated for number from 1 to 36:
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### Even Fibonacci numbers

Today, I found the Euler Project. Problem #2 is Each new term in the Fibonacci sequence is generated by adding the previous two terms. By starting with 1 and 2, the first 10 terms will be: <...
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### Trying to Visualize a Collatz - The Collatz conjecture

I happen to have this collatz collatz[x_, y_] := If[x == 3*y || x == 2*y + 1 || y == 3*x || y == 2*x + 2, 2, 0] So i want a visual 3D adjacency graph of my ...
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### Finding long strings of identical digits in transcendental numbers

Introduction Describing the three main streams of present-day mathematical philosophy (formalism, Platonism and intuitionism) in a well-known book, The Emperor's New Mind, R. Penrose says: ...it ...
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### efficient way to count the number of zeros at the (right) end of a very large number

If I want to count the number of zeros at the (right) end of a large number, like $12345!$, I can use something like: Length[Last[Split[IntegerDigits[12345!]]]] ...
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### Fast calculation of discrete logarithms

Does Mathematica have any built-in fast algorithms for calculating discrete logarithms over $(\mathbb{Z}_p)^\times$ (the group of integers modulo $p$)? Essentially, for a fixed large prime ...
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### Speeding up the built-in Rudin-Shapiro and Thue-Morse sequence functions

Version 10.2 introduced two well-studied sequences as functions: the (Golay-)Rudin-Shapiro sequence (RudinShapiro[]) and the (Prouhet-)Thue-Morse sequence (...
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### Why does Mathematica claim there is no even prime?

I wonder if this is a bug, or if I'm misunderstanding something: Exists[n, EvenQ[n] && PrimeQ[n]] // Resolve (* ==> False *) So if I interpret this ...
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### Integers which are the sum of both two and three consecutive squares

This is a math problem I came across the other day: $365$ can be written as a sum of two and also three consecutive perfect squares: $$365=14^2+13^2=12^2+11^2+10^2$$ What is the next number with ...
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### Semi prime numbers

The high school textbook I am using has the example of semi-prime numbers. They wanted students to find (by "perspiration") all the semi-prime numbers less than $50$ (for a question on set theory). ...
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### Fastest square number test

What is the fastest possible square number test in Mathematica 7, both for machine size and big integers? I presume in version 8 the fastest will be a dedicated C LibraryLink function.
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### Why does iterating Prime in reverse order require much more time?

Say I would like to display the $10$ greatest primes that are less than $10^5$. I could do the following: ...
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### Is it better to completely forget about the existence of PowersRepresentations?

I noticed that in several cases the performance of PowersRepresentations is hugely worse than that of IntegerPartitions. (Mma 10....
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### How can FactorInteger be so slow if PrimeQ is fast?

My 8th grade son had a homework problem to find a prime factor of $99!-1$. I thought to be clever/lazy and used FactorInteger[99!-1], but it takes forever. ...
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### Proving (or at least 'being told by Mathematica') that Sqrt[2] is irrational?

I realize that Mathematica is not specifically an automated theorem prover. However, this article: http://www.wolfram.com/products/mathematica/newin6/content/EquationalTheoremProving/ Suggests that ...
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### How to know if a number is the square of a rational?

I'm pretty new with Mathematica and I was looking for a way to know whether a number is a square of a rational. I thought of Head[Sqrt[myNumber]] == Rational ...
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### How to find lattice points on a line segment?

How do I find points on the line segment joining {-4, 11} and {16, -1} whose coordinates are positive integers?
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### Next highly composite number?

R language has this function 'nextn' (link) which computes the next highly composite number greater than a given one, which is used to find the optimal padding size for the subsequent FFT operation. ...
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### What is the confidence limit on this convergence?

Bug introduced in 7.0 and fixed in 10.0.0 When I run this, Product[n^MoebiusMu[n],{n,1,Infinity}] I get $\frac{1}{4 \pi^{2}}$ Over on Math Overflow ...
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### the more effective method to find 21 digits armstrong number

In recreational number theory, a narcissistic number (also known as a pluperfect digital invariant (PPDI), an Armstrong number(after Michael F. Armstrong) or a plus perfect number) is a number that is ...
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### Find the minimum integer r such that $(10^r - 1)/37$ is an integer

I know Element[(10^r - 1)/37, Integers] tests the condition. So what is the command that gives me the minimum integer value r ...
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### Double series over primes

I'm very curious if the following double series over primes has a closed form: $$\sum_{k \in \mathcal{P}}\sum_{n \in \mathcal{P}}\frac{1}{k\;n(k+n)^2}$$ where $\mathcal{P}$ denotes the set of all ...
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### FiniteFields package is very slow. Any fast substitute for Mathematica?

I want to compute the inverse of matrix, say with dimensions $100 \times 100$, defined over a large finite field extension such as $GF(2^{120})$. I am using the package FiniteFields, but Mathematica's ...
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### Has Mathematica a function to compute the Smith Normal Form?

The Smith normal form is a matrix that can be calculated for any matrix (not necessarily square) with integer entries. See Wikipedia for a more elaborate description. Has Mathematica a function to ...
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### Number of digits for factorial of 12345678987654321

What is the number of digits (IntegerLength) of the factorial of 12 345 678 987 654 321? The number of zeros at the end of this factorial was calculated and it is huge: exactly 3 086 419 746 913 569 ...
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### Visualisation of the field of algebraic numbers in the complex plane

Hot to plot the field of algebraic numbers in the complex plane? In this picture, the color of a point indicates the degree of the polynomial of which itβs a root: red = rational numbers ...
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### Modular arithmetic - efficiently calculating the remainders of factorials

When working on this question regarding the divisibility of the sum of factorials, I decided to write some code to test "small values" of the problem using the following code. ...
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### Is there a PrimeQ whose accuracy guarantee you can adjust?

Say I have a list of a million integers each with a million digits, and I want a crude sieve to see which have a chance at being prime. Mathematica has a PrimeQ function, which appears to be slow ...
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### Possible improvements to this Syracuse (3x+1)/2 graph?

This algorithm produces the Syracuse disjoint tree graph without any duplicates. No need for Union, For, and ...
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### Doing computations in a modulo ring

I need to perform some computations in a modulo ring, like Mod[Subfactorial[n], m] Mod[Binomial[n, k], m] However, this is obviously much too slow for large <...
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### Generating $\mathbb{Z}^*_n$

I'm using Mathematica to illustrate basic number theory concepts in a graduate cryptography class. To generate elements of the multiplicative group of integers modulo $n$, i.e. $\mathbb{Z}^*_n$, I can ...
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### Write any positive integer as a sum of squares

With n = 17 I would like to get {4, 1} and with n = 999 {31, 6, 1, 1} so that, for example, ...
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### Implementing the Farey sequence efficiently

There is of course the silly implementation: FareySequence[n_] := Union[Flatten[Table[j/i, {i, 1, n}, {j, 0, i}]]] However, there are numerous properties and ...
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### Evaluate continued fraction

Mathematica has the ContinuedFraction[] function to give the continued fraction expansion of a rational (or approximation of a real) number. I'm interested in the ...
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### Memory management and speed for Fast GCD

Let's say that we have some $300\,\text{K}$ digits (arbitrary function) and want to trial factor with $100{,}000{,}000$ first prime numbers. ...