Mathematica Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for users of Mathematica. It's 100% free, no registration required.

Sign up
Here's how it works:
  1. Anybody can ask a question
  2. Anybody can answer
  3. The best answers are voted up and rise to the top

I wish to display logarithms with different bases in the single-term rather than numerator/denominator form during output:

Log[17]/Log[2]   ->  Log2[17]
Log[13]/Log[10]  ->  Log10[13]
Log[99]/Log[11]  ->  Log[11, 99]

What is the best way to apply formatting rules like this?

share|improve this question
Note: this Q&A is intended both to instruct and to solicit alternative methods or refinements of methods shown. – Mr.Wizard Jul 1 '12 at 10:18
Wouldn't a requirement to have all output in the same base (that you globally set) be a more natural one? So that Log10[2] + Log[5] automatically converts to 1/Log2[10] + Log2[5]/Log2[E] if you're a CS person? – Sjoerd C. de Vries Jul 1 '12 at 11:50
@Sjoerd again that's not what I'm going for here but feel free to post an answer to that effect if you want. :-) – Mr.Wizard Jul 1 '12 at 12:16
Never had that requirement, so that would go against the FAQ (asking questions about problems you actually face). :-P – Sjoerd C. de Vries Jul 1 '12 at 12:37
Well, Log[17]/Log[2] is a problem I actually face: seeing that kind of output annoys me as I compulsively want to shorten it. :^) – Mr.Wizard Jul 1 '12 at 12:55
up vote 9 down vote accepted

One can use $PrePrint and ReplaceAll to effect this:

$PrePrint = # /. {
     Log[n_]/Log[2]  :> Defer @ Log2[n],
     Log[n_]/Log[10] :> Defer @ Log10[n],
     Log[n_]/Log[b_] :> Defer @ Log[b, n]
     } &;

It is also possible to use Format but in this case it requires unprotecting Times:


Format[Log[n_]/Log[2]]  := Defer @ Log2[n]
Format[Log[n_]/Log[10]] := Defer @ Log10[n]
Format[Log[n_]/Log[b_]] := Defer @ Log[b, n]


These assignments are made to a special class of rules: FormatValues. Because these are only used in formatting this should not slow down internal operations using Times, unlike overloading UpValues or DownValues.

Either method relies on Defer to prevent an infinite recursion yet allow evaluation of output when it is given as input.


Mathematica graphics

share|improve this answer
What about (Log[17] + Log[4])/Log[10]? – Sjoerd C. de Vries Jul 1 '12 at 11:49
@Sjoerd I'm not attempting that kind of operation but Simplify takes care of that particular case. – Mr.Wizard Jul 1 '12 at 12:14
I know that, of course. The point that I wanted to make is that the precise configuration of Logs that you want to replace will more often than not be hidden somewhere in the structure of your output. Your current answer falls short of handling that. – Sjoerd C. de Vries Jul 1 '12 at 12:35
@Sjoerd That's true. Nevertheless it makes for cleaner output in many cases. I am open to improvements. :-) – Mr.Wizard Jul 1 '12 at 12:53
I have the solution but the margin of my laptop is too small to contain it. – Sjoerd C. de Vries Jul 1 '12 at 13:33

Using a trick similar to what Chip showed in this answer:

SetSystemOptions["SimplificationOptions" -> "AutosimplifyTwoArgumentLog" -> False];

logRule = Log[x_]/Log[b_] :> Switch[b, 2, Log2[x], 10, Log10[x], _, Log[b, x]];

{Log[17]/Log[2], Log[13]/Log[10], Log[99]/Log[11]} /. logRule
   {Log2[17], Log10[13], Log[11, 99]}

Sjoerd's example in a comment to the Wizard's answer requires some finesse:

Expand[(Log[17] + Log[4])/Log[10]] /. logRule
   Log10[4] + Log10[17]
share|improve this answer

Your Answer


By posting your answer, you agree to the privacy policy and terms of service.

Not the answer you're looking for? Browse other questions tagged or ask your own question.