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I'm trying to extrude a nice 3D form from the 2D binary image below using the code posted, but I haven't had any luck in figuring out the error that's keeping GraphicsComplex from running. The end result should be the 3D points and a plot. Any help would certainly be appreciated!

my 2D binary Image

  pts= ImageData[testimage];
  twoD = Rescale[Table[Thread[{pts[[i]], pts[[i]]}], {i, 1, Length[pts]}]];

 extrude[pts_, h_] := Module[{vb, vt, len = Length[pts], nh, shape},
 If[! NumericQ[h], nh = 0., nh = N@h];
 vb = Table[{pts[[i, 1]], pts[[i, 2]], 0}, {i, len}];
 vt = Table[{pts[[i, 1]], pts[[i, 2]], nh}, {i, len}];
 shape = 
   Join[vb, vt], {Polygon[Range[len]], 
      Table[{i, i + 1, len + i + 1, len + i}, {i, len - 1}], {len, 1,
     len + 1, 2 len}]], Polygon[Range[len + 1, 2 len]]}]
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You;ll find some solutions to exactly this problem among the answers to this question: Character edge finding. –  Szabolcs May 30 '12 at 7:16
Thanks @Szabolcs Interesting approaches! –  R Hall May 30 '12 at 11:02

3 Answers 3

up vote 19 down vote accepted

One way to extrude a 3D object from a binary 2D image is to use RegionPlot3D:

pts = ImageData[ColorNegate@Binarize@Import["http://i.stack.imgur.com/UWO6k.png"], "Bit"];
g = RegionPlot3D[pts[[Sequence @@ Round@{i, j}]] == 1, {i, 1, #1}, {j, 1, #2}, {z, 
 0, 1}, PlotPoints -> 100, Mesh -> False, Axes -> False, Boxed -> False] & @@   Dimensions[pts]
pts = Cases[g, x_GraphicsComplex :> First@x, Infinity]

enter image description here

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very nice! How do I get the points for this form? –  R Hall May 30 '12 at 3:10
@RHall I made an edit in the grace period. Now both, my first version and halirutan's edit work :) –  rm -rf May 30 '12 at 3:11
I always wanted to test what happens when several people try to screw with a snip of code at the same time ;-) –  halirutan May 30 '12 at 3:13
@image_doctor yes, you'll certainly hit some limit at some point. In this case, you can increase the number of plotpoints (will have to be quite high and be warned — it'll be slow) –  rm -rf May 30 '12 at 7:43
@RHall Yeah, I wasn't sure if your image was binary or if you just uploaded some random image from the internet :) Thanks for the edit, now we're back to my first version before halirutan's edit :P –  rm -rf May 31 '12 at 1:55

Unfortunately, I see more than one point why your approach will not work like you hope. Let me give a completely different approach which consumes some memory but is really short.

The trick is to use ListContourPlot3D and to create the input-volume from your image which you use as slices. The only thing you have to remember is that you have to pad your stack of images with two slices of zeroes only.

bm = 1 - ImageData[Import["http://i.stack.imgur.com/UWO6k.png"],"Bit"];
With[{zero = ConstantArray[0, Dimensions[bm]]},
 ListContourPlot3D[Append[Prepend[Table[bm, {5}], zero], zero], Contours -> {0.5}]

enter image description here

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same question as below for you. How do I get the points for this 3D form? Thanks very much! –  R Hall May 30 '12 at 3:21
Since you used Polygon in your own code, I didn't know that you want to have points. Can you state in your question more clearly, what exactly you expect as outcome? A surface, a volume, points on the surface? –  halirutan May 30 '12 at 12:39

In version 9, there is a new way to extrude shapes, based on Image3D or Raster3D. Borrowing directly from the documentation for Raster3D, under "Neat Examples", the extrusion can now be done by extracting the ImageData of the bitmap, making sure that it contains an alpha channel which can then be converted to "empty space" in Image3D. So I first load the example image and convert it to im1 which has transparency and also gets an orange color (I just added the latter to make it more interesting):

im = Import["http://i.stack.imgur.com/UWO6k.png"];
im1 = SetAlphaChannel[ColorReplace[im, Black -> Orange], 

Graphics3D[{Raster3D[{ImageData[im1]}, {{0, 1, 0.4}, {1, 0, 0.6}}, 
   Method -> {"InterpolateValues" -> True}]}, PlotRange -> {0, 1}, 
 ViewPoint -> {-1.54, 0.35, 3}, ViewVertical -> {-0.23, 0.86, 0.46}]


The special thing here is the "InterpolateValues" -> True method which smoothes the transition at the surface of the solid. Here is what it looks like if you leave out that Method option:

Graphics3D[{Raster3D[{ImageData[im1]}, {{0, 1, 0.4}, {1, 0, 0.6}}]}, 
 PlotRange -> {0, 1}, Background -> Lighter[Gray]]

no method

Instead of the Method option, I also tried a different approach in which I simply smoothed the borders of the source image in addition to coloring it:

Graphics3D[{Raster3D[{ImageData[Blur@im1]}, {{0, 1, 0.4}, {1, 0, 
     0.6}}]}, PlotRange -> {0, 1}, Background -> Lighter[Gray]]


It seems that the Blur@im1 has approximately the same effect as the Method option in the first extrusion.

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Great new method to handel this type of problem. Thanks very much! –  R Hall Jan 4 '13 at 21:19

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