# Integral converging in M9 but not in M10

Background: Mac OSX 10.9.4, Mathematica 9.0.1 vs. Mathematica 10.0 (both versions are Student Editions).

I have a notebook. It used to evaluate fine in Mathematica 9. I upgraded to 10 and, without doing any modification at all to the notebook, an integral stopped converging. I even tried after quitting/restarting the kernel and doing an OS reboot.

In an attempt to provide a minimal test case I wrote a code snippet that had a typo (epsilon instead of 'element of ') which caused a great deal of confusion. The code would not work, neither in 9 nor 10. Thanks to Michael for identifying it. The original code in my notebook did not suffer from this typo, although I'm afraid most people thought it did.

I narrowed the problem down to the following code:

ClearAll["Global*"];
u[n_, x_] := If[x <= 0 || x >= L, 0, Sqrt[2/L] Sin[n π x /L]]
φ[n_, k_] =
Assuming[{n \[Element] Integers, L > 0},
Simplify@
(1/Sqrt[2 π]) Integrate[u[n, x] Exp[-I k x], {x, 0, L}]]

Δk[n_] :=
Assuming[{n \[Element] Integers},
Simplify@
((Integrate[
φ[n, k]\[Conjugate] k^2 φ[n, k], {k, -Infinity, +Infinity}] -
Integrate[
φ[n, k]\[Conjugate] k φ[n, k], {k, -Infinity, +Infinity}]^2)^(1/2))]
L = 1;
(* If I replace ParallelTable[] with Table[], the problem disappears *)
ParallelTable[Δk[n], {n, 1, 1}]

(* If I uncomment the following line, the problem disappears no matter
whether I use ParallelTable[] or just Table[] *)
(*Quit[]*)

(* From now on it's the original code snippet I wrote with the typo fixed *)
ClearAll["Global*"];
u[n_, x_] := If[x <= 0 || x >= L, 0, Sqrt[2/L] Sin[n π x/L]]

\[Phi][n_, k_] =
Assuming[{n \[Element] Integers, L > 0},
FourierTransform[u[n, x], x, k, FourierParameters -> {0, -1}]]

η[n_, k_] =
Assuming[{n \[Element] Integers, L > 0, k \[Element] Reals},
FullSimplify[
\[Phi][n, k]\[Conjugate] \[Phi][n, k]]]

Δk[n_] =
Assuming[{n \[Element] Integers, n > 0, L > 0, k \[Element] Reals},
Simplify@Sqrt@
Integrate[k^2 η[n, k], {k, -\[Infinity], +\[Infinity]}]]


Mathematica 9 yields $n\pi/L$ as a result for the last expression. In Mathematica 10 I get a convergence error:

Summary

1. The problem is real.
2. The problem happens only when I use ParallelTable[] (instead of just Table[]).
3. The problem goes aways when I run Quit[] just before the 2nd ClearAll command.
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I have 9.01 and I am getting Integral does not converge. – bobbym Aug 20 '14 at 10:03
Same output both v9.0.1.0 and v10.0.0.0 on Windows 7 Pro SP1 64bit. Integral does not converge on {-\[Infinity],\[Infinity]} – rhermans Aug 20 '14 at 10:03
I get the same output in MMa 8.0.4 and 10.0.0 under Win7 x64: integral does not converge. – Alexey Popkov Aug 20 '14 at 10:11
You can get the correct result n*Pi/L if you are willing to help MMA a bit. There are appearant poles in k which, however cancel at closer inspection; also the condition that n is an integer must be imposed several times during Integrate and Simplify. It is the "usual" procedure of working hand-in-hand with MMA. I'll show it later in detail when I find the time. I have version 8 by the way. – Dr. Wolfgang Hintze Aug 20 '14 at 10:52
It seems to me there is a real bug here, which ought to be reported to WRI, and this question should be reopened. – Michael E2 Aug 22 '14 at 15:46

Here is the derivation promised earlier. I have chosen to create a new answer in order not to mix things up and because it shows some handling which I like to call "man-machine" interaction with Mathematica. And, sorry for the "Greeks", but I find it very cumbersome to reedit them :-(

\$Version


"8.0 for Microsoft Windows (64-bit) (October 7, 2011)"

First the procedures of Michael E2 en bloc:

u[n_, x_] := If[x <= 0 || x >= L, 0, Sqrt[2/L] Sin[n π x/L]];
φ[n_, k_] := Assuming[{n ∈ Integers, L > 0},
FourierTransform[u[n, x], x, k, FourierParameters -> {0, -1}]];
η[n_, k_] = Assuming[{n ∈ Integers, L > 0, k ∈ Reals},
FullSimplify[Conjugate@φ[n, k] φ[n, k]]];
Δk[n_] = Assuming[{n ∈ Integers, n > 0, L > 0, k ∈ Reals},
FullSimplify[
Sqrt@Integrate[k^2 η[n, k], {k, -∞, +∞}]]];


During evaluation of In[168]:= Integrate::idiv: Integral of (2 k^2 L n^2 π)/(-k^2 L^2+n^2 π^2)^2-(2 (-1)^n k^2 L n^2 π Cos[k L])/(-k^2 L^2+n^2 π^2)^2 does not converge on {-∞,∞}. >>

Okay, the error message again (i.e. also in version 8). But if we read it carefully we can find out what Mathematica has not "seen": each term in itself is divergent, but the sum is not!

Let's process step by step.

First the intermediate results:

u[n, k]

If[k <= 0 || k >= L, 0, Sqrt[2/L] Sin[(n π k)/L]]

φ[n, k]

(E^(-I k L) (-(-1)^n + E^(I k L)) Sqrt[L] n Sqrt[π])/(-k^2 L^2 +
n^2 π^2)

η[n, k]

-((2 L n^2 π (-1 + (-1)^n Cos[k L]))/(k^2 L^2 - n^2 π^2)^2)


Now the notorious integral (again)

Integrate[k^2 η[n, k], {k, -∞, ∞},
Assumptions -> {L > 0, n > 0, k > 0, {k, L, n} ∈ Reals}]


During evaluation of In[181]:= Integrate::idiv: Integral of (2 k^2 L n^2 π)/(-k^2 L^2+n^2 π^2)^2-(2 (-1)^n k^2 L n^2 π Cos[k L])/(-k^2 L^2+n^2 π^2)^2 does not converge on {-∞,∞}. >>

Now the trick: let Mathematica do the integral without any assumptions:

Integrate[k^2 η[n, k], {k, -∞, ∞}]

ConditionalExpression[-((
L π (-(1/(-(L^2/n^2))^(3/2)) + (
n^4 (Sqrt[-(1/n^2)] - π) Abs[
L] (Cos[n π] + I Sin[n π]) (Cosh[π/Sqrt[-(1/n^2)]] +
Sinh[Sqrt[-(1/n^2)] n^2 π]))/L^4))/n^2),
L ∈ Reals && (L == 0 || n ∉ Reals) &&
3 Arg[-(L^2/n^2)] <= 2 π]


Very good. No divergence but a conditional expression.

Now, even if it sounds like brute force, we take the result by hand and simplify it under our conditions:

Simplify[-((
L π (-(1/(-(L^2/n^2))^(3/2)) + (
n^4 (Sqrt[-(1/n^2)] - π) Abs[
L] (Cos[n π] + I Sin[n π]) (Cosh[π/Sqrt[-(1/n^2)]] +
Sinh[Sqrt[-(1/n^2)] n^2 π]))/L^4))/n^2), {L > 0, n > 0,
k > 0, {k, L} ∈ Reals, n ∈ Integers}]

(n^2 π^2)/L^2


And, voilà, the desired result pops up.

This was a demonstration of the cooperation man-Mathematica which in many cases leads to valid results.

Best regards, Wolfgang

-
Thank you very much for taking the time to provide an answer. Also no worries for the greek letters :) – Zet Aug 20 '14 at 11:25
@Öskå: You're very much right, and I'd like to do that. But how? – Dr. Wolfgang Hintze Aug 20 '14 at 12:51
@Öskå: Yes, I can see what you did but - sorry - not HOW (Output indention, Greeks). Please give me a pointer to the detailed description of how to set up a correct text for StackExchange MMA. Up to now I find editing rather cumbersome, and I'd like to avoid bothering others. Thanks in advance. – Dr. Wolfgang Hintze Aug 20 '14 at 12:59
@Öskå: the indention is ok now. But the Greeks remain open since I'm using IE and I don't want to make experiments with scripts only to be able to contribute to the MMA-group properly. IMHO the provided editor should be able to convert the typical strutures of MMA, otherwise it is not particularly suited. – Dr. Wolfgang Hintze Aug 20 '14 at 13:28
@Dr.WolfgangHintze See meta.mathematica.stackexchange.com/questions/1043/… – Michael E2 Aug 20 '14 at 21:12

Update

The updated question clarifies the problem. As far as I can tell, this is a bug, a rather strange bug. I've tracked the problem down to the definition L = 1 still existing on the parallel kernels. This removes the problem:

• Put ParallelEvaluate@ClearAll["GlobalL"] after the second ClearAll["Global*"] halfway through the code.

Then FullSimplify will simplify η so that the integral in Δk will evaluate to n π / L.

The difference can be traced to how φ[n, k] evaluates under the two conditions:

(* OP's code:
(E^(-I k) Sqrt[L] (-E^(I k) n π + n π Cos[(n π)/L] + I k L Sin[(n π)/L])) /
(Sqrt[π] (k L - n π) (k L + n π))
*)
(* After ParallelEvaluate@ClearAll["GlobalL"]:
(E^(-I k L) ((-1)^(1 + n) + E^(I k L)) Sqrt[L] n Sqrt[π]) /
(-k^2 L^2 + n^2 π^2)
*)


Note that the first case is not automatically simplified, and for some reason FullSimplify fails to do so, too.

Other fixes may be used after the second ClearAll["Global*"]:

CloseKernels[]
ParallelEvaluate[Clear["Global*"]]


Putting ParallelEvaluate[L = 1] after the fix reintroduces the problem, provided it is done before the definition of φ[n, k] is executed. Something seems to get set in the system that determines how L will be treated; after φ[n, k] is executed, quitting the kernel might be the only way to reset it. (ClearSystemCache[] did not work. There may be something similar I don't know about.)

That such a dependency arises at all is a mystery to me. I imagine the system somehow might engage the parallel kernels, when they exist, in determining internal attributes of the symbol L. I have found no way to test that hypothesis. Then again, bugs themselves should be unlikely.

Original answer - Still works on a fresh kernel

The following returns n Pi / L in both V9 and V10:

u[n_, x_] := If[x <= 0 || x >= L, 0, Sqrt[2/L] Sin[n π x/L]]
φ[n_, k_] :=
Assuming[{n ∈ Integers, L > 0},
FourierTransform[u[n, x], x, k, FourierParameters -> {0, -1}]]
η[n_, k_] =
Assuming[{n ∈ Integers, L > 0, k ∈ Reals},
FullSimplify[Conjugate@φ[n, k] φ[n, k]]]
Δk[n_] =
Assuming[{n ∈ Integers, n > 0, L > 0, k ∈ Reals},
FullSimplify[Sqrt@Integrate[k^2 η[n, k], {k, -∞, +∞}]]]
`
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@Zet Did you restart your kernel? – sebhofer Aug 20 '14 at 10:51
@Zet I can confirm Michael's observation that this code gives the desired result on V9 and V10 (on Linux, but it's very unlikely this makes a difference) – sebhofer Aug 20 '14 at 10:56
@sebhofer thanks! Restarting the kernel made Michael's code work for me. Restarting didn't help though with my original notebook. I still get errors :( Can it be that prior computations affect subsequent operations? I will upload my notebook for anyone feeling like playing with it. – Zet Aug 20 '14 at 11:01
Of course it can, you are changing the state of your Mathematica session after all. I would suggest that you go through your code step by step and see which symbols/expressions evaluate to something unexpected. Start from the bottom and work your way up. I don't think, however, that someone will do this work for you. – sebhofer Aug 20 '14 at 11:06
I wrote to Wolfram Technical Support. Thank you Michael for not giving up on me. I will post back when/if I get an answer. – Zet Aug 22 '14 at 19:25