# How to find the magnitude of a vector?

I'm doing this exercise in Wagner's book (p.78)

, and this is my attempt:

Clear[curvature];

(*Define curvature function *)
curvature[x_, y_, z_] := Module[{s, v, T},
s = {x, y, z};
v = D[s, t];
T = v/Norm[v];
Simplify[Norm[D[T, t]/Norm[v]]]]

(* Apply function to Cos[t],Sin[t],t *)
curvature[Cos[t], Sin[t], t]


As you could see I did not get the expected answer (1/2) when applying my curvature function.

It also would not reduce even when a value for t was substituted:

curvature[Cos[t], Sin[t], t] /. t -> 4


However, following Wagner's solution where he defines a separate magnitude function does work:

Clear[curvature];

(* Define function to find magnitude of a vector *)
mag[vec_] := Sqrt[vec.vec]

(* Define curvature function *)
curvature[x_, y_, z_] := Module[{s, v, T},
s = {x, y, z};
v = D[s, t];
T = v/mag[v];
Simplify[mag[D[T, t]/mag[v]]]]

(* Apply function to Cos[t],Sin[t],t *)
curvature[Cos[t], Sin[t], t]


It seems pretty clear that using Norm to find the magnitude of a vector does not work in this case. More specifically, using Norm doesn't seem to simplify trigonometric results unless the t is substituted

Norm[{Cos[t], Sin[t]}]
Norm[{Cos[t], Sin[t]}] /. t -> 4 // Simplify


I'm very fuzzy on my matrix knowledge so I'd really appreciate an explanation on why Norm doesn't seem to return the expected answer in this case. Also, is there any other way to find a vector's magnitude that will give the correct answer without defining a new function?

-
Simplify[Norm[{Cos[t], Sin[t]}], Element[t, Reals]]... –  Yves Klett Jul 3 '14 at 7:43
This is a related post: Finding unit tangent, normal, and binormal vectors for a given r(t), and explicitly this is the simplest answer. –  Artes Aug 24 '14 at 9:11

Norm in general assumes complex arguments and uses Abs to provide for that:

Norm[{x, y}]


Sqrt[Abs[x]^2 + Abs[y]^2]

For real elements, you can either add an assumption for Simplify or manually get rid of Abs beforehand:

Simplify[Norm[{Cos[t], Sin[t]}], Element[t, Reals]]
Simplify[Norm[{Cos[t], Sin[t]}] /. Abs -> Identity]


1

1

This now returns the desired result for real t:

curvature[x_, y_, z_] := Module[{s, v, T}, s = {x, y, z};
v = D[s, t];
T = v/Norm[v];
Simplify[Norm[D[T, t]/Norm[v]] /. Abs -> Identity]]

curvature[Cos[t], Sin[t], t]


1/2

-

Here is a version of curvature that uses Mathematica machinery not available to Wagner, who used V3.

curvature[x_, y_, z_] :=
Module[{s, v, vMag, T},
Block[{$Assumptions = {{x, y, z} ∈ Reals}}, s = {x, y, z}; v = D[s, t]; vMag = Surd[v.v, 2]; T = v/vMag; Simplify[Norm[D[T, t]/vMag]]]] curvature[Cos[t], Sin[t], t]  1/2  - That post would have been also great from @Sjoerd: Surd by Sjoerd :D – Yves Klett Jul 3 '14 at 11:24 @YvesKlett. Perhaps Sjoerd thought that using Surd to eliminate Abs was absurd :D – m_goldberg Jul 3 '14 at 11:28 hehe, I had that one coming :-) – Yves Klett Jul 3 '14 at 11:29 EDIT With V10 we can use ArcCurvature[2 {Cos[t], Sin[t]}, t]  1/2 Or FrenetSerretSystem[a {Cos[t], Sin[t]}, t]  yielding curvature, tangent, and normal Original answer An alternative: $Assumptions = t \[Element] Reals;

J[{x_, y_}] := {-y, x}

Curvature[a_][t_] := a''[t].J[a'[t]]/Norm[J[a'[t]]]^3 // Simplify

circle[a_][t_] := {a Cos[t], a Sin[t]}

Curvature[circle[2]][t]


ellipse[a_, b_][t_] := {a Cos[t], b Sin[t]}

Curvature[ellipse[2, 3]][t]


Curvature[ellipse[2, 3]][Pi]


\$Assumptions = True; (* Clear *)

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Thank you for your answer. Could you help me understand why you defined a function with 2 parameters in separate brackets? –  seismatica Jul 3 '14 at 19:45
@seismatica I think it's just a matter of personal taste. Makes code clearer for me in the ellipse-case (t vs. Pi). –  eldo Jul 3 '14 at 19:58