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I don't know if there is any possibility to recover the latitude and longitude from a picture which was taken by a telescope? For example, the following picture were taken by a telescope (I don't know the parameters), but the time I believe is about 2013/11/17 4:00-6:00 GTM+8, and location is near 31.85, 117.28. My question is can we obtain the exact position from this picture? Original Picture

Maybe the picture taken from Stellarium at the same time and same location will do some help: Stellarium1 Stellarium2

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Are you sure that this is mainly about Mathematica? I'm not saying that your question is not interesting but maybe astronomy.SE would be a better start? –  Öskå Nov 20 '13 at 15:10
    
In my mind, I hope to do a transformation that will make the pictures overlap with each other, then I can get the geodesic data from this transformation. –  van abel Nov 20 '13 at 15:20
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No, not from the picture. It is a narrow view which doesn't include necessary information: the angle above the horizon. –  rcollyer Nov 20 '13 at 18:50
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AstronomicalData in combination with an image processing function like ImageAlign or FindGeometricTransformation? –  Sjoerd C. de Vries Nov 21 '13 at 6:38
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Maybe I'm totally confused, but it seems to me that the earth is rotating much faster than either it is orbiting the sun or the comet is moving. So however the sky appears at some location, after the earth rotates five degrees, the sky will appear (almost exactly) the same five degrees to the west. And if the sky looks the same at two different places at two different times, how can you determine the location if the time is unknown? (I'm assuming "4:00-6:00 GMT+8" means there's a 2-hour uncertainty, not that the camera exposure was two hours long.) Is that right? –  Michael E2 Nov 22 '13 at 2:09
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