# Why can't Mathematica solve these non-linear equations? [closed]

$l_{2}$ and $\theta$ are the variables. All other parameters are constants. I need to find $l_{2}$ and $\theta$ in terms of these constants.

$\frac{\mu_{0}\sin(\theta-\theta_{0})}{\sqrt{l_{2}^2 +\beta_{0}l_{2}+\mu_{0}l_{2}\cos(\theta-\theta_{0}) +\lambda_{0}}} + \frac{\mu_{1}\sin(\theta-\theta_{1})}{\sqrt{l_{2}^2 +\beta_{1}l_{2}+\mu_{1}l_{2}\cos(\theta-\theta_{1}) +\lambda_{1}}} =0$

and

$\frac{2l_{2}+\beta_{0}+\mu_{0}\cos(\theta-\theta_{0})}{\sqrt{l_{2}^2 +\beta_{0}l_{2}+\mu_{0}l_{2}\cos(\theta-\theta_{0}) +\lambda_{0}}}+ \frac{2l_{2}+\beta_{1}+\mu_{1}\cos(\theta-\theta_{1})}{\sqrt{l_{2}^2 +\beta_{1}l_{2}+\mu_{1}l_{2}\cos(\theta-\theta_{1}) +\lambda_{1}}} =\frac{-2}{1+Vr^{l_{2}/D}}$

Here's the Mathematica code I used:

Solve[{(μ0 Sin[t - t0])/Sqrt[ l2^2 + β0 l2 +μ0 l2 Cos[t - t0] + λ0] +
(μ1 Sin[t - t1])/ Sqrt[l2^2 + β1 l2 + μ1 l2 Cos[t - t1] + λ1] ==  0,
(2 l2 + β0 + μ0 Cos[t - t0])/Sqrt[ l2^2 + β0 l2 + μ0 l2 Cos[t - t0] + λ0] +
( 2 l2 + β1 + μ1 Cos[t - t1])/Sqrt[  l2^2 + β1 l2 + μ1 l2 Cos[t - t1] + λ1] +
2/( 1 + V r^(l2/D0)) == 0}, {t, l2}]


This didn't work.

How can I use Mathematica techniques to solve this equation?

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## closed as too localized by m_goldberg, whuber, Yves Klett, Szabolcs, rcollyerMar 7 '13 at 2:54

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As posed this is not a question -- it's just a complaint. What kind of answer are you look for? – m_goldberg Mar 5 '13 at 3:19
@m_goldberg how do I solve that? – Norman Mar 5 '13 at 4:02
In spirit this is the same question as mathematica.stackexchange.com/questions/20606/…. It suffers from exactly the same problem: you cannot hope to find a closed symbolic solution to an equation in which the unknown(s) appear as exponents (as $l_2$ does on the rhs) unless there is some magical cancellation (which there is not here). – whuber Mar 5 '13 at 4:28
when susbtitue values still doesn't work. [Mu]0 = 0; [Mu]1 = -9418; t0 = 0; t1 = 0; [Lambda]0 = 250000; [Lambda]1 = 22629049; [Beta]0 = 0; [Beta]1 = 0; V = 148; r = 1.1; D0 = 3640; – Norman Mar 5 '13 at 5:33
Solve cannot unravel the transcendental dependencies (use of both l2 and r^(l2/D0) will likely cause trouble here). Per documentation "Solve deals primarily with linear and polynomial equations." Use the method Simon Woods shows, or similar, for solving in presence of explicitly numeric parameters. – Daniel Lichtblau Mar 5 '13 at 14:54

Since you have provided numerical values for the constants, you can

1. Use plotting functions to approximately locate the solutions
2. Use FindRoot to refine the approximations

First define the numerical constants and the equations:

μ0 = 0; μ1 = -9418; t0 = 0; t1 = 0; λ0 = 250000; \
λ1 = 22629049; β0 = 0; β1 = 0; V = 148; r = 1.1; \
D0 = 3640;

eq = {(μ0 Sin[t - t0])/
Sqrt[l2^2 + β0 l2 + μ0 l2 Cos[
t - t0] + λ0] + (μ1 Sin[t - t1])/
Sqrt[l2^2 + β1 l2 + μ1 l2 Cos[t - t1] + λ1] ==
0, (2 l2 + β0 + μ0 Cos[t - t0])/
Sqrt[l2^2 + β0 l2 + μ0 l2 Cos[
t - t0] + λ0] + (2 l2 + β1 + μ1 Cos[
t - t1])/
Sqrt[l2^2 + β1 l2 + μ1 l2 Cos[t - t1] + λ1] +
2/(1 + V r^(l2/D0)) == 0};


Using ContourPlot you can visualise the solutions:

With[{eq = eq}, ContourPlot[eq, {t, -7, 7}, {l2, -3000, 3000}]]


It looks like the first equation is satisfied by $t = n \pi$. Let's check:

eq[[1]] /. Sin[t] -> 0
(*  True  *)


The solutions of the second equation occur around $l2 = 2000$ for $cos \theta = 1$ and $l2 = -2000$ for $cos \theta = -1$. We can use FindRoot to refine these estimates:

FindRoot[eq[[2]] /. Cos[t] -> 1, {l2, 2000}]
(*  {l2 -> 1879.45}  *)

FindRoot[eq[[2]] /. Cos[t] -> -1, {l2, -2000}]
(*  {l2 -> -2152.18}  *)


So the solutions are $t=n\pi$ and $l2=1879.45 \text{ for even } n$, $l2=-2152.18\text{ for odd } n$

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if we have another two constraints like below how could I use mathematica to solve the problem l2^2 + [Beta]0 l2 + [Mu]0 l2 Cos[t - t0] + [Lambda]0 >[Mu]4 and l2^2 + [Beta]1 l2 + [Mu]1 l2 Cos[t - t1] + [Lambda]0 >[Mu]5 – Norman Mar 7 '13 at 10:24