# How to see a long output expression

I often run into long expressions in the process of solving equations. To go forward I need to be able to eye-ball the expressions to make some substitutions or use some existing relations I know to cancel stuff out etc to reduce the expression to as small as possible so I can prove certain properties about the expressions, such as positivity, monotonicity etc. However, many times I am not able to do much because I can't even see the expression properly.

Is there a way to present the expression in some rational fraction or something that would make it easy to see..

So something like this:

$\frac{F(x,y,z)}{G(x,y,z)+H(x,y,z)}+\frac{F_2(x,y,z)+G_2(x,y,z)}{G_3(x,y,z)+H_4(x,y,z)}+...\\$

instead of something that just spills across lines so it's hard to track what the thing looks like:

$(( x + ((f(x) +g(y)/(......\\ ..... ))))+ ...\\ ....\\ (((((....\\ ...))$

Below is an actual expression that I have:

x->-(-((2 H0D^p (-1+p) p)/(-2 delta p+2 p r-2 rho+(-1+p) p sigma^2))+(H0D^((2 delta-2   r+σ^2+Sqrt[8 rho σ^2+(-2 delta+2 r-σ^2)^2])/(2 σ^2)) H0S^(-((2 delta-2 r+σ^2+Sqrt[8 rho σ^2+(-2 delta+2 r-σ^2)^2])/(2 σ^2))) (2 delta-2 r+σ^2+Sqrt[8 rho σ^2+(-2 delta+2 r-σ^2)^2]) (-1+(2 delta-2 r+σ^2+Sqrt[8 rho σ^2+(-2 delta+2 r-σ^2)^2])/(2 σ^2)) ((F (c0-rho) (2 delta-2 r+σ^2-Sqrt[8 rho σ^2+(-2 delta+2 r-σ^2)^2]))/(2 rho σ^2)-(2 H0S^p (p-(2 delta-2 r+σ^2-Sqrt[8 rho σ^2+(-2 delta+2 r-σ^2)^2])/(2 σ^2)))/(-2 (delta p-p r+rho)+(-1+p) p sigma^2)-(H0S (r-rho) (-1+(2 delta-2 r+σ^2-Sqrt[8 rho σ^2+(-2 delta+2 r-σ^2)^2])/(2 σ^2)))/(delta-r+rho)))/(2 σ^2 ((2 delta-2 r+σ^2-Sqrt[8 rho σ^2+(-2 delta+2 r-σ^2)^2])/(2 σ^2)-(2 delta-2 r+σ^2+Sqrt[8 rho σ^2+(-2 delta+2 r-σ^2)^2])/(2 σ^2)))+(H0D^((2 delta-2 r+σ^2-Sqrt[8 rho σ^2+(-2 delta+2 r-σ^2)^2])/(2 σ^2)) H0S^(-((2 delta-2 r+σ^2-Sqrt[8 rho σ^2+(-2 delta+2 r-σ^2)^2])/(2 σ^2))) (2 delta-2 r+σ^2-Sqrt[8 rho σ^2+(-2 delta+2 r-σ^2)^2]) (-1+(2 delta-2 r+σ^2-Sqrt[8 rho σ^2+(-2 delta+2 r-σ^2)^2])/(2 σ^2)) ((F (c0-rho) (2 delta-2 r+σ^2+Sqrt[8 rho σ^2+(-2 delta+2 r-σ^2)^2]))/(2 rho σ^2)-(2 H0S^p (p-(2 delta-2 r+σ^2+Sqrt[8 rho σ^2+(-2 delta+2 r-σ^2)^2])/(2 σ^2)))/(-2 (delta p-p r+rho)+(-1+p) p sigma^2)-(H0S (r-rho) (-1+(2 delta-2 r+σ^2+Sqrt[8 rho σ^2+(-2 delta+2 r-σ^2)^2])/(2 σ^2)))/(delta-r+rho)))/(2 σ^2 (-((2 delta-2 r+σ^2-Sqrt[8 rho σ^2+(-2 delta+2 r-σ^2)^2])/(2 σ^2))+(2 delta-2 r+σ^2+Sqrt[8 rho σ^2+(-2 delta+2 r-σ^2)^2])/(2 σ^2))))/(H0D^2 ((H0S^(-1-(2 delta-2 r+σ^2-Sqrt[8 rho σ^2+(-2 delta+2 r-σ^2)^2])/(2 σ^2)-(2 delta-2 r+σ^2+Sqrt[8 rho σ^2+(-2 delta+2 r-σ^2)^2])/(2 σ^2)) (H0D^((2 delta-2 r+σ^2+Sqrt[8 rho σ^2+(-2 delta+2 r-σ^2)^2])/(2 σ^2)) H0S^((2 delta-2 r+σ^2-Sqrt[8 rho σ^2+(-2 delta+2 r-σ^2)^2])/(2 σ^2))-H0D^((2 delta-2 r+σ^2-Sqrt[8 rho σ^2+(-2 delta+2 r-σ^2)^2])/(2 σ^2)) H0S^((2 delta-2 r+σ^2+Sqrt[8 rho σ^2+(-2 delta+2 r-σ^2)^2])/(2 σ^2))) ((F (-c0+rho) (2 delta-2 r+σ^2-Sqrt[8 rho σ^2+(-2 delta+2 r-σ^2)^2]) (2 delta-2 r+σ^2+Sqrt[8 rho σ^2+(-2 delta+2 r-σ^2)^2]))/(4 rho σ^4)-(2 H0S^p (p-(2 delta-2 r+σ^2-Sqrt[8 rho σ^2+(-2 delta+2 r-σ^2)^2])/(2 σ^2)) (p-(2 delta-2 r+σ^2+Sqrt[8 rho σ^2+(-2 delta+2 r-σ^2)^2])/(2 σ^2)))/(-2 (delta p-p r+rho)+(-1+p) p sigma^2)+(H0S (r-rho) (-1+(2 delta-2 r+σ^2-Sqrt[8 rho σ^2+(-2 delta+2 r-σ^2)^2])/(2 σ^2)) (-1+(2 delta-2 r+σ^2+Sqrt[8 rho σ^2+(-2 delta+2 r-σ^2)^2])/(2 σ^2)))/(delta-r+rho)) (-((2 H0D^p (-1+p) p)/(-2 delta p+2 p r-2 rho+(-1+p) p sigma^2))+(H0D^((2 delta-2 r+σ^2+Sqrt[8 rho σ^2+(-2 delta+2 r-σ^2)^2])/(2 σ^2)) H0S^(-((2 delta-2 r+σ^2+Sqrt[8 rho σ^2+(-2 delta+2 r-σ^2)^2])/(2 σ^2))) (2 delta-2 r+σ^2+Sqrt[8 rho σ^2+(-2 delta+2 r-σ^2)^2]) (-1+(2 delta-2 r+σ^2+Sqrt[8 rho σ^2+(-2 delta+2 r-σ^2)^2])/(2 σ^2)) ((F (c0-rho) (2 delta-2 r+σ^2-Sqrt[8 rho σ^2+(-2 delta+2 r-σ^2)^2]))/(2 rho σ^2)-(2 H0S^p (p-(2 delta-2 r+σ^2-Sqrt[8 rho σ^2+(-2 delta+2 r-σ^2)^2])/(2 σ^2)))/(-2 (delta p-p r+rho)+(-1+p) p sigma^2)-(H0S (r-rho) (-1+(2 delta-2 r+σ^2-Sqrt[8 rho σ^2+(-2 delta+2 r-σ^2)^2])/(2 σ^2)))/(delta-r+rho)))/(2 σ^2 ((2 delta-2 r+σ^2-Sqrt[8 rho σ^2+(-2 delta+2 r-σ^2)^2])/(2 σ^2)-(2 delta-2 r+σ^2+Sqrt[8 rho σ^2+(-2 delta+2 r-σ^2)^2])/(2 σ^2)))+(H0D^((2 delta-2 r+σ^2-Sqrt[8 rho σ^2+(-2 delta+2 r-σ^2)^2])/(2 σ^2)) H0S^(-((2 delta-2 r+σ^2-Sqrt[8 rho σ^2+(-2 delta+2 r-σ^2)^2])/(2 σ^2))) (2 delta-2 r+σ^2-Sqrt[8 rho σ^2+(-2 delta+2 r-σ^2)^2]) (-1+(2 delta-2 r+σ^2-Sqrt[8 rho σ^2+(-2 delta+2 r-σ^2)^2])/(2 σ^2)) ((F (c0-rho) (2 delta-2 r+σ^2+Sqrt[8 rho σ^2+(-2 delta+2 r-σ^2)^2]))/(2 rho σ^2)-(2 H0S^p (p-(2 delta-2 r+σ^2+Sqrt[8 rho σ^2+(-2 delta+2 r-σ^2)^2])/(2 σ^2)))/(-2 (delta p-p r+rho)+(-1+p) p sigma^2)-(H0S (r-rho) (-1+(2 delta-2 r+σ^2+Sqrt[8 rho σ^2+(-2 delta+2 r-σ^2)^2])/(2 σ^2)))/(delta-r+rho)))/(2 σ^2 (-((2 delta-2 r+σ^2-Sqrt[8 rho σ^2+(-2 delta+2 r-σ^2)^2])/(2 σ^2))+(2 delta-2 r+σ^2+Sqrt[8 rho σ^2+(-2 delta+2 r-σ^2)^2])/(2 σ^2)))))/(H0D^2 ((2 delta-2 r+σ^2-Sqrt[8 rho σ^2+(-2 delta+2 r-σ^2)^2])/(2 σ^2)-(2 delta-2 r+σ^2+Sqrt[8 rho σ^2+(-2 delta+2 r-σ^2)^2])/(2 σ^2)))-(H0S^(-1-(2 delta-2 r+σ^2-Sqrt[8 rho σ^2+(-2 delta+2 r-σ^2)^2])/(2 σ^2)-(2 delta-2 r+σ^2+Sqrt[8 rho σ^2+(-2 delta+2 r-σ^2)^2])/(2 σ^2)) ((H0D^((2 delta-2 r+σ^2-Sqrt[8 rho σ^2+(-2 delta+2 r-σ^2)^2])/(2 σ^2)) H0S^((2 delta-2 r+σ^2+Sqrt[8 rho σ^2+(-2 delta+2 r-σ^2)^2])/(2 σ^2)) (2 delta-2 r+σ^2-Sqrt[8 rho σ^2+(-2 delta+2 r-σ^2)^2]))/(2 σ^2)-(H0D^((2 delta-2 r+σ^2+Sqrt[8 rho σ^2+(-2 delta+2 r-σ^2)^2])/(2 σ^2)) H0S^((2 delta-2 r+σ^2-Sqrt[8 rho σ^2+(-2 delta+2 r-σ^2)^2])/(2 σ^2)) (2 delta-2 r+σ^2+Sqrt[8 rho σ^2+(-2 delta+2 r-σ^2)^2]))/(2 σ^2)) (delta/(delta-r+rho)-(2 H0D^(-1+p) p)/(-2 delta p+2 p r-2 rho+(-1+p) p sigma^2)+(H0D^(-1+(2 delta-2 r+σ^2+Sqrt[8 rho σ^2+(-2 delta+2 r-σ^2)^2])/(2 σ^2)) H0S^(-((2 delta-2 r+σ^2+Sqrt[8 rho σ^2+(-2 delta+2 r-σ^2)^2])/(2 σ^2))) (2 delta-2 r+σ^2+Sqrt[8 rho σ^2+(-2 delta+2 r-σ^2)^2]) ((F (c0-rho) (2 delta-2 r+σ^2-Sqrt[8 rho σ^2+(-2 delta+2 r-σ^2)^2]))/(2 rho σ^2)-(2 H0S^p (p-(2 delta-2 r+σ^2-Sqrt[8 rho σ^2+(-2 delta+2 r-σ^2)^2])/(2 σ^2)))/(-2 (delta p-p r+rho)+(-1+p) p sigma^2)-(H0S (r-rho) (-1+(2 delta-2 r+σ^2-Sqrt[8 rho σ^2+(-2 delta+2 r-σ^2)^2])/(2 σ^2)))/(delta-r+rho)))/(2 σ^2 ((2 delta-2 r+σ^2-Sqrt[8 rho σ^2+(-2 delta+2 r-σ^2)^2])/(2 σ^2)-(2 delta-2 r+σ^2+Sqrt[8 rho σ^2+(-2 delta+2 r-σ^2)^2])/(2 σ^2)))+(H0D^(-1+(2 delta-2 r+σ^2-Sqrt[8 rho σ^2+(-2 delta+2 r-σ^2)^2])/(2 σ^2)) H0S^(-((2 delta-2 r+σ^2-Sqrt[8 rho σ^2+(-2 delta+2 r-σ^2)^2])/(2 σ^2))) (2 delta-2 r+σ^2-Sqrt[8 rho σ^2+(-2 delta+2 r-σ^2)^2]) ((F (c0-rho) (2 delta-2 r+σ^2+Sqrt[8 rho σ^2+(-2 delta+2 r-σ^2)^2]))/(2 rho σ^2)-(2 H0S^p (p-(2 delta-2 r+σ^2+Sqrt[8 rho σ^2+(-2 delta+2 r-σ^2)^2])/(2 σ^2)))/(-2 (delta p-p r+rho)+(-1+p) p sigma^2)-(H0S (r-rho) (-1+(2 delta-2 r+σ^2+Sqrt[8 rho σ^2+(-2 delta+2 r-σ^2)^2])/(2 σ^2)))/(delta-r+rho)))/(2 σ^2 (-((2 delta-2 r+σ^2-Sqrt[8 rho σ^2+(-2 delta+2 r-σ^2)^2])/(2 σ^2))+(2 delta-2 r+σ^2+Sqrt[8 rho σ^2+(-2 delta+2 r-σ^2)^2])/(2 σ^2)))) (-((2 H0S^p (p-(2 delta-2 r+σ^2-Sqrt[8 rho σ^2+(-2 delta+2 r-σ^2)^2])/(2 σ^2)) (p-(2 delta-2 r+σ^2+Sqrt[8 rho σ^2+(-2 delta+2 r-σ^2)^2])/(2 σ^2)))/(-2 delta p+2 p r-2 rho+(-1+p) p sigma^2))+1/(rho (delta-r+rho))(-((c0 F (delta-r+rho) (2 delta-2 r+σ^2-Sqrt[8 rho σ^2+(-2 delta+2 r-σ^2)^2]) (2 delta-2 r+σ^2+Sqrt[8 rho σ^2+(-2 delta+2 r-σ^2)^2]))/(4 σ^4))+rho ((delta F (2 delta-2 r+σ^2-Sqrt[8 rho σ^2+(-2 delta+2 r-σ^2)^2]) (2 delta-2 r+σ^2+Sqrt[8 rho σ^2+(-2 delta+2 r-σ^2)^2]))/(4 σ^4)+(r-rho) (-((F (2 delta-2 r+σ^2-Sqrt[8 rho σ^2+(-2 delta+2 r-σ^2)^2]) (2 delta-2 r+σ^2+Sqrt[8 rho σ^2+(-2 delta+2 r-σ^2)^2]))/(4 σ^4))+H0S (-1+(2 delta-2 r+σ^2-Sqrt[8 rho σ^2+(-2 delta+2 r-σ^2)^2])/(2 σ^2)) (-1+(2 delta-2 r+σ^2+Sqrt[8 rho σ^2+(-2 delta+2 r-σ^2)^2])/(2 σ^2)))))))/(H0D (-((2 delta-2 r+σ^2-Sqrt[8 rho σ^2+(-2 delta+2 r-σ^2)^2])/(2 σ^2))+(2 delta-2 r+σ^2+Sqrt[8 rho σ^2+(-2 delta+2 r-σ^2)^2])/(2 σ^2)))))


I tried to copy as Latex and compile it but Latex is giving me something that goes off the page. I guess I can break it into many lines at random places and see what that gives me. I was wondering if there is some automatic way of accomplishing this.

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Does expr //TraditionalForm or expr //Row[#,TraditionalForm]& give what you need? – kglr Dec 11 '12 at 3:51
.. or SetOptions[EvaluationNotebook[], CommonDefaultFormatTypes -> {"Output" -> TraditionalForm}]? – kglr Dec 11 '12 at 3:58
You could also try exp /. rho -> \[Rho] /. delta -> \[Delta] /. sigma -> \[Sigma] /. H0D -> Subscript[H, D] /. H0S -> Subscript[H, s] and get a large screen ;-) – chris Dec 11 '12 at 10:58
Thanks @kguler and Chris. Your suggestions helped a lot. Next stop: large screen. – Amatya Dec 12 '12 at 3:16

## 1 Answer

Another technique can be added to that of Chris. That is to substitute single symbols for repeated extended expressions. I stored the right hand side of the initial expression above as:

compressedExpression=<<Long Example Test>>;


Then by picking out various repeated expressions I defined the following rules.

rule1 = (-2 r + 2 δ + σ^2 + Sqrt[8 ρ σ^2 + (2 r - 2 δ - σ^2)^2]) -> e1;
rule2 = (-2 r + 2 δ + σ^2 - Sqrt[8 ρ σ^2 + (2 r - 2 δ - σ^2)^2]) -> e2;
rule3 = (2 p r - 2 p δ - 2 ρ + (-1 + p) p σ^2) -> e3;
rule4 = (-2 (-p r + p δ + ρ) + (-1 + p) p σ^2) -> e4;
rule5 = (-r + δ + ρ) -> e5;
rule6 = k_. (1/( e4 e5 ρ )) -> k e6;


Then I did the following substitutions, starting with Chris's substitutions. Remember that the starting expression is just the right hand side of Amatya's expression.

step1 = Uncompress[compressedExpression] /. rho -> ρ /.
delta -> δ /. sigma -> σ /.
H0D -> Subscript[H, D] /. H0S -> Subscript[H, s];
step2 = step1 /. rule1 /. rule2 /. rule3 /. rule4;
step3 = step2 /. rule5 /. Minus /@ rule5 // Simplify;
step4 = step3 /. rule6 /. rule5


I don't know if that is much of a help. The process is a bit of an art. You can reverse substitute simply by reversing most of the rules. For example:

e1 - e2 /. Reverse[rule1] /. Reverse[rule2]
(* 2 Sqrt[8 ρ σ^2 + (2 r - 2 δ - σ^2)^2] *)

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Thanks David! That helps a lot. It is difficult, maybe unfeasible, to make sense by eyeballing some of the expressions I have. – Amatya Aug 30 '13 at 19:59