# How can I plot the complex graph of $x^x$ in Mathematica?

For example, this Wolfram Alpha query shows this graph:

But it does not show the code for plotting it in Mathematica. Plot[x^x, {x, -1, 1}] only plots the real values. How can I do this in Mathematica?

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Try this:Plot[{Re[x^x], Im[x^x]}, {x, -1, 2}, PlotRange -> All] – xzczd Sep 14 '12 at 4:39
...then there's also this... (one of the vagaries of having to choose a "principal branch" for the logarithm) – J. M. Sep 14 '12 at 5:18
@SjoerdC.deVries Will this eventually be deleted? If deleted, what happens to the nice answers here? Is it possible to merge the duplicates. – Noble P. Abraham Sep 16 '12 at 15:52
@Mark Reopened on request. – Mr.Wizard Aug 7 '14 at 20:25

Plot[{Re[x^x], Im[x^x]}, {x, -1, 2}]

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Here's a view that shows how the graph starts to spiral for negative $x$ values, if we take the complex values into account.

ParametricPlot3D[{x, Re[Exp[x*Log[x]]], Im[Exp[x*Log[x]]]},
{x, -4, 2}, PlotRange -> All, ViewVertical -> {0, 1, 0},
BoxRatios -> {2, 1, 1}, ViewPoint -> {2, 2, 12}]


In fact, if we write $x^x = e^{x\log(x)}$, this naturally generallizes to $x^x = e^{x\log(x) + 2i\pi k}$; each $2i\pi k$ represents another branch of the complex logarithm. In this context, we see that this graph just forms one spiral of a family of spirals.

x2x[0.0, _] = x2x[0, _] = 1;
x2x[x_, k_] := Exp[x (Log[x] + 2 I Pi k)];
Table[points3D[k] = Table[
z =  x2x[x, k];
{x, Re[z], Im[z]},
{x, -4, 2, 0.005}],
{k, -7, 7}];
Graphics3D[Table[{If[k == 0, Thick, Opacity[0.5]],
Line[points3D[k]]}, {k, -4, 4}],
Axes -> True, PlotRange -> {{-4, 2}, {-4, 4}, {-4, 4}},
BoxRatios -> {2, 1, 1}, ViewPoint -> {2, 2, 12},
ViewVertical -> {0, 1, 0}]


In elementary classes, you might see the claim that $(p/q)^{p/q}$ is defined for $p$ negative and $q$ odd and positive. Thus, including these points, the graph might look something like so:

points = Union[Cases[Table[Chop[points3D[k], 1/10], {k, -7, 7}],
{_?Negative, _, 0}, {2}]];
Plot[x^x, {x, 0, 2}, PlotStyle -> Directive[Thick, Black],
Epilog -> Point[Most /@ points], PlotRange -> {{-2, 2}, {-2, 4}}]


From the complex perspective, the dots arise as spots where one of the spiral threads punctures the $x$-$z$ plane.

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I chose yulinlinyu's as the answer because it answered my question directly and succinctly - but Mark Mcclure's answer goes above and beyond - and is the real jewel in this thread! – Faisal Vali Sep 17 '12 at 18:17

As yulinyu has pointed out, something like the following will give you the desired plot.

Plot[Through[{Re, Im}[x^x]], {x, -2, 2}, Evaluated -> True]


You might also be interested in this excellent answer by Simon Woods to create a graph of the plot over the complex domain. Using his function and evaluating the following gives you a pretty picture

domainPlot[#^# &]


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For a second I thought I smoked .... but no – Dr. belisarius Sep 14 '12 at 5:20
Are you training your hypno-powers? – Dr. belisarius Sep 14 '12 at 5:40